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Electron beam effect on biomaterials I: focusing on bone graft materials.

Kim SM, Fan H, Cho YJ, Eo MY, Park JH, Kim BN, Lee BC, Lee SK - Biomater Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 62-1 Changgyeonggungno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-768 South Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: To develop biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bones have been irradiated by an electron beam to change the basic structures of their inorganic materials. The optimal electron beam energy and individual dose have not been established for maximizing the bony regeneration capacity in electron beam irradiated bone.

Results: Commercial products consisting of four allogenic bones, six xenogenic bones, and six synthetic bones were used in this study. We used 1.0-MeV and 2.0 MeV linear accelerators (power: 100 KW, pressure; 115 kPa, temperature; -30 to 120°C, sensor sensitivity: 0.1-1.2 mV/kPa, generating power sensitivity: 44.75 mV/kPa, supply voltage: 50.25 V), and a microtrone with different individual irradiation doses such as 60 kGy and 120 kGy. Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.

Conclusions: Electron beam irradiation of bony substitutes has four main effects: the cross-linking of biphasic calcium phosphate bony apatite, chain-scissioning, the induction of rheological changes, and microbiological sterilization. These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Implantation of each bone material and the evaluation process showing the exposed bilateral frontal bone of the Sprague-Dawley rat (A), 5.0-mm-diameter perforations of the frontal bone were created with a round bur, avoiding damage to the internal brain tissues (B), implantation of each perforated calvarial wound (C), acquired frontal bone tissue including the perforated area and covering periosteal membrane after 8 weeks (D) and 16 weeks (E).
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Fig4: Implantation of each bone material and the evaluation process showing the exposed bilateral frontal bone of the Sprague-Dawley rat (A), 5.0-mm-diameter perforations of the frontal bone were created with a round bur, avoiding damage to the internal brain tissues (B), implantation of each perforated calvarial wound (C), acquired frontal bone tissue including the perforated area and covering periosteal membrane after 8 weeks (D) and 16 weeks (E).

Mentions: In total, 48 Sprague-Dawley male rats (each weighing 200-230 g) were anesthetized with a mixture of Ketamine® (60 mg/kg, ketamine hydrochloride; Yuhan Co., Korea) and Rompun® (3 mg/kg, xylazine hydrochloride; Bayer Korea, Korea) in a 4:1 ratio. The rats’ bilateral frontal bones were exposed (Figure 4A) and perforated with a round bur (5.0 mm diameter; Shinhung Co., Korea) so as not to damage the internal brain tissue (Figure 4B). The result was a round bone perforation measuring 5 mm in diameter, and the perforated bone wound was filled with each bone graft materials (Figure 4C). After implantation, the wound was covered by a periosteal membrane suture using 5-0 Vicryl® (Johnson & Johnson Co., USA), followed by a tight suture of the incised skin with 4-0 Nylon® (Ailee Co., Korea). After surgery, animals were kept warm in their individual cages until they made a full recovery from the anesthesia and were then returned to the holding room with free access to water and food. Tarasyn® (2 mg/kg, ketorolac tromethamine; Yuhan Co., Korea) was given to each animal subcutaneously for 3 days to reduce any postoperative pain, and Icepacin® (1.5 mg/kg, icepacin sulfate; Yuhan Co., Korea) was used for 3 days to prevent postoperative infection.Figure 4


Electron beam effect on biomaterials I: focusing on bone graft materials.

Kim SM, Fan H, Cho YJ, Eo MY, Park JH, Kim BN, Lee BC, Lee SK - Biomater Res (2015)

Implantation of each bone material and the evaluation process showing the exposed bilateral frontal bone of the Sprague-Dawley rat (A), 5.0-mm-diameter perforations of the frontal bone were created with a round bur, avoiding damage to the internal brain tissues (B), implantation of each perforated calvarial wound (C), acquired frontal bone tissue including the perforated area and covering periosteal membrane after 8 weeks (D) and 16 weeks (E).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552193&req=5

Fig4: Implantation of each bone material and the evaluation process showing the exposed bilateral frontal bone of the Sprague-Dawley rat (A), 5.0-mm-diameter perforations of the frontal bone were created with a round bur, avoiding damage to the internal brain tissues (B), implantation of each perforated calvarial wound (C), acquired frontal bone tissue including the perforated area and covering periosteal membrane after 8 weeks (D) and 16 weeks (E).
Mentions: In total, 48 Sprague-Dawley male rats (each weighing 200-230 g) were anesthetized with a mixture of Ketamine® (60 mg/kg, ketamine hydrochloride; Yuhan Co., Korea) and Rompun® (3 mg/kg, xylazine hydrochloride; Bayer Korea, Korea) in a 4:1 ratio. The rats’ bilateral frontal bones were exposed (Figure 4A) and perforated with a round bur (5.0 mm diameter; Shinhung Co., Korea) so as not to damage the internal brain tissue (Figure 4B). The result was a round bone perforation measuring 5 mm in diameter, and the perforated bone wound was filled with each bone graft materials (Figure 4C). After implantation, the wound was covered by a periosteal membrane suture using 5-0 Vicryl® (Johnson & Johnson Co., USA), followed by a tight suture of the incised skin with 4-0 Nylon® (Ailee Co., Korea). After surgery, animals were kept warm in their individual cages until they made a full recovery from the anesthesia and were then returned to the holding room with free access to water and food. Tarasyn® (2 mg/kg, ketorolac tromethamine; Yuhan Co., Korea) was given to each animal subcutaneously for 3 days to reduce any postoperative pain, and Icepacin® (1.5 mg/kg, icepacin sulfate; Yuhan Co., Korea) was used for 3 days to prevent postoperative infection.Figure 4

Bottom Line: Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 62-1 Changgyeonggungno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-768 South Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: To develop biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bones have been irradiated by an electron beam to change the basic structures of their inorganic materials. The optimal electron beam energy and individual dose have not been established for maximizing the bony regeneration capacity in electron beam irradiated bone.

Results: Commercial products consisting of four allogenic bones, six xenogenic bones, and six synthetic bones were used in this study. We used 1.0-MeV and 2.0 MeV linear accelerators (power: 100 KW, pressure; 115 kPa, temperature; -30 to 120°C, sensor sensitivity: 0.1-1.2 mV/kPa, generating power sensitivity: 44.75 mV/kPa, supply voltage: 50.25 V), and a microtrone with different individual irradiation doses such as 60 kGy and 120 kGy. Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.

Conclusions: Electron beam irradiation of bony substitutes has four main effects: the cross-linking of biphasic calcium phosphate bony apatite, chain-scissioning, the induction of rheological changes, and microbiological sterilization. These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus