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Electron beam effect on biomaterials I: focusing on bone graft materials.

Kim SM, Fan H, Cho YJ, Eo MY, Park JH, Kim BN, Lee BC, Lee SK - Biomater Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 62-1 Changgyeonggungno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-768 South Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: To develop biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bones have been irradiated by an electron beam to change the basic structures of their inorganic materials. The optimal electron beam energy and individual dose have not been established for maximizing the bony regeneration capacity in electron beam irradiated bone.

Results: Commercial products consisting of four allogenic bones, six xenogenic bones, and six synthetic bones were used in this study. We used 1.0-MeV and 2.0 MeV linear accelerators (power: 100 KW, pressure; 115 kPa, temperature; -30 to 120°C, sensor sensitivity: 0.1-1.2 mV/kPa, generating power sensitivity: 44.75 mV/kPa, supply voltage: 50.25 V), and a microtrone with different individual irradiation doses such as 60 kGy and 120 kGy. Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.

Conclusions: Electron beam irradiation of bony substitutes has four main effects: the cross-linking of biphasic calcium phosphate bony apatite, chain-scissioning, the induction of rheological changes, and microbiological sterilization. These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic drawings of the basic electron beam accelerator including the electron gun, cathodic emitter, grid, anode, magnetic focusing lens and magnetic deflection coil. This accelerator includes the beam-defining system in electron mode.
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Fig11: Schematic drawings of the basic electron beam accelerator including the electron gun, cathodic emitter, grid, anode, magnetic focusing lens and magnetic deflection coil. This accelerator includes the beam-defining system in electron mode.

Mentions: EBI or electron beam processing is a process that involves using electrons, usually of high energy, to treat an object for a variety of purposes under elevated temperatures and a nitrogen atmosphere. EBI is also used to treat products with a high-energy electron beam accelerator which utilizes an on-off technology with a common design similar to that of a cathode ray television. Electron energies typically fall within the keV to MeV ranges, depending on the depth of penetration required. The basic components of a typical electron beam processing device are an electron gun, dose chamber, magnet, emitter, grid, anode, and deflection coil [1,3]. The electron gun is used to generate and accelerate the primary beam, while the magnetic optical focusing lens and deflection coil are used for controlling the way in which the electron beam impinges on the specimens (Figure 11). The cathode emitter is a source of thermally-emitted electrons that are both accelerated and shaped into a collimated beam by the electrostatic field geometry established by the grid and anode. The electron beam then emerges from the gun assembly through an exit hole in the ground-plane anode with an energy equal to the value of the negative high voltage being applied to the cathode. This use of a direct high voltage to produce a high-energy electron beam allows the conversion of input AC power to beam power at a greater than 95% efficiency, making electron beam material processing a highly energy-efficient technique. After exiting the gun, the beam passes through an electromagnetic focusing lens and magnetic deflection coil system. This focusing lens is used for producing either a focused or defocused beam spot on the specimens, while the deflection coil is used to either position the beam spot on a stationary location or provide some form of oscillatory motion [1,3,8].Figure 11


Electron beam effect on biomaterials I: focusing on bone graft materials.

Kim SM, Fan H, Cho YJ, Eo MY, Park JH, Kim BN, Lee BC, Lee SK - Biomater Res (2015)

Schematic drawings of the basic electron beam accelerator including the electron gun, cathodic emitter, grid, anode, magnetic focusing lens and magnetic deflection coil. This accelerator includes the beam-defining system in electron mode.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552193&req=5

Fig11: Schematic drawings of the basic electron beam accelerator including the electron gun, cathodic emitter, grid, anode, magnetic focusing lens and magnetic deflection coil. This accelerator includes the beam-defining system in electron mode.
Mentions: EBI or electron beam processing is a process that involves using electrons, usually of high energy, to treat an object for a variety of purposes under elevated temperatures and a nitrogen atmosphere. EBI is also used to treat products with a high-energy electron beam accelerator which utilizes an on-off technology with a common design similar to that of a cathode ray television. Electron energies typically fall within the keV to MeV ranges, depending on the depth of penetration required. The basic components of a typical electron beam processing device are an electron gun, dose chamber, magnet, emitter, grid, anode, and deflection coil [1,3]. The electron gun is used to generate and accelerate the primary beam, while the magnetic optical focusing lens and deflection coil are used for controlling the way in which the electron beam impinges on the specimens (Figure 11). The cathode emitter is a source of thermally-emitted electrons that are both accelerated and shaped into a collimated beam by the electrostatic field geometry established by the grid and anode. The electron beam then emerges from the gun assembly through an exit hole in the ground-plane anode with an energy equal to the value of the negative high voltage being applied to the cathode. This use of a direct high voltage to produce a high-energy electron beam allows the conversion of input AC power to beam power at a greater than 95% efficiency, making electron beam material processing a highly energy-efficient technique. After exiting the gun, the beam passes through an electromagnetic focusing lens and magnetic deflection coil system. This focusing lens is used for producing either a focused or defocused beam spot on the specimens, while the deflection coil is used to either position the beam spot on a stationary location or provide some form of oscillatory motion [1,3,8].Figure 11

Bottom Line: Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 62-1 Changgyeonggungno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-768 South Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: To develop biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bones have been irradiated by an electron beam to change the basic structures of their inorganic materials. The optimal electron beam energy and individual dose have not been established for maximizing the bony regeneration capacity in electron beam irradiated bone.

Results: Commercial products consisting of four allogenic bones, six xenogenic bones, and six synthetic bones were used in this study. We used 1.0-MeV and 2.0 MeV linear accelerators (power: 100 KW, pressure; 115 kPa, temperature; -30 to 120°C, sensor sensitivity: 0.1-1.2 mV/kPa, generating power sensitivity: 44.75 mV/kPa, supply voltage: 50.25 V), and a microtrone with different individual irradiation doses such as 60 kGy and 120 kGy. Additional in vitro analyses were performed by elementary analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In vivo clinical, radiographic, and micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) with bone marrow density (BMD) analysis was performed in 8- and 16-week-old Spraque-Dawley rats with calvarial defect grafts.

Conclusions: Electron beam irradiation of bony substitutes has four main effects: the cross-linking of biphasic calcium phosphate bony apatite, chain-scissioning, the induction of rheological changes, and microbiological sterilization. These novel results and conclusions are the effects of electron beam irradiation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus