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Proportions of CD4+, CD8+ and B cell subsets are not affected by exposure to HIV or to Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawian HIV-uninfected but exposed children.

Longwe H, Phiri KS, Mbeye NM, Gondwe T, Jambo KC, Mandala WL - BMC Immunol. (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result of successful PMTCT programs, children born from HIV-infected mothers are now effectively protected from contracting the infection.At 6 months of age, HEU children had a lower percentage of total CD4(+) T cells compared to HUU children and a lower proportion of naïve CD8(+) T cells but higher percentage of effector memory CD8(+) T cells compared to HUU children.The study showed that the subtle variations in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets observed at 6 months do not last beyond 12 months of age, suggesting that HEU children have a robust cell-mediated immune system during first year of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi. herbert.longwe@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: As a result of successful PMTCT programs, children born from HIV-infected mothers are now effectively protected from contracting the infection. However, it is not well known whether in utero exposure to the virus and the subsequent exposure to Cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis affect the cell mediated immune system of the children. This observational prospective study was aimed at determining how CD4(+) T, CD8(+) T and B cell subsets varied in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children at different ages.

Methods: We recruited HEU and HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children from 6 months of age and followed them up until they were 18 months old. HEU children received daily CTX prophylaxis beginning at 6 weeks of age until when 12 months of age. Venous blood samples were collected 6 monthly and analysed for different subsets of CD8(+) T, B cells and totalCD4(+) T cells.

Results: At 6 months of age, HEU children had a lower percentage of total CD4(+) T cells compared to HUU children and a lower proportion of naïve CD8(+) T cells but higher percentage of effector memory CD8(+) T cells compared to HUU children. HEU and HUU children had similar proportions of all B cell subsets at all ages.

Conclusions: The study showed that the subtle variations in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets observed at 6 months do not last beyond 12 months of age, suggesting that HEU children have a robust cell-mediated immune system during first year of life.

Trial registration: This article report is not based on results of a controlled health-care intervention.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Proportions of different subsets of CD8+ T cells and B cells in HEU and HUU children at different age: Figures a represents percentage of CD8+T cells out of total lymphocytes, b naïve CD8+ T cells, c effector memory CD8+ T cells, d central memory CD8+ T cells and e terminal effector CD8+ T cells. Figures f represents proportion of CD19+ B cells as a percentage of total lymphocytes, g naive B cells, h classical memory B cell, i immature transitional B cells and j atypical memory B cells. Horizontal bars represent medians. Comparison between groups was performed with Mann Whitney U test. A difference with a p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant
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Fig1: Proportions of different subsets of CD8+ T cells and B cells in HEU and HUU children at different age: Figures a represents percentage of CD8+T cells out of total lymphocytes, b naïve CD8+ T cells, c effector memory CD8+ T cells, d central memory CD8+ T cells and e terminal effector CD8+ T cells. Figures f represents proportion of CD19+ B cells as a percentage of total lymphocytes, g naive B cells, h classical memory B cell, i immature transitional B cells and j atypical memory B cells. Horizontal bars represent medians. Comparison between groups was performed with Mann Whitney U test. A difference with a p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant

Mentions: Demographic details of the study participants have already been reported previously [19]. At 6 months of age, the median proportion of the total CD4+ T cells in HEU was significantly lower compared to HUU children (55.2 vs. 58.4 %, p = 0.04) (Table 1). We did not find any significant differences in the CD4 T cell subsets between the two groups at all time points (Data not shown). Median proportion of CD8+ T cells was similar between HEU children compared to their HUU counterparts (35.1 vs. 32.6 %, p = 0.15) (Fig. 1a). No differences were observed in the median proportions of total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells between HEU and HUU children at 12 months: CD4+ (54.8 vs. 51.1 %, p = 0.621), CD8+ (36.4 vs. 39.3 %, p = 0.634) and 18 months:CD4+(54.8 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.052), CD8+ T cells (36.7 vs. 41.7 %, p = 0.056) (Table 1). HEU children had significantly higher ratio of CD4:CD8 (p = 0.05) compared to HUU children (Table 1).Table 1


Proportions of CD4+, CD8+ and B cell subsets are not affected by exposure to HIV or to Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawian HIV-uninfected but exposed children.

Longwe H, Phiri KS, Mbeye NM, Gondwe T, Jambo KC, Mandala WL - BMC Immunol. (2015)

Proportions of different subsets of CD8+ T cells and B cells in HEU and HUU children at different age: Figures a represents percentage of CD8+T cells out of total lymphocytes, b naïve CD8+ T cells, c effector memory CD8+ T cells, d central memory CD8+ T cells and e terminal effector CD8+ T cells. Figures f represents proportion of CD19+ B cells as a percentage of total lymphocytes, g naive B cells, h classical memory B cell, i immature transitional B cells and j atypical memory B cells. Horizontal bars represent medians. Comparison between groups was performed with Mann Whitney U test. A difference with a p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4552147&req=5

Fig1: Proportions of different subsets of CD8+ T cells and B cells in HEU and HUU children at different age: Figures a represents percentage of CD8+T cells out of total lymphocytes, b naïve CD8+ T cells, c effector memory CD8+ T cells, d central memory CD8+ T cells and e terminal effector CD8+ T cells. Figures f represents proportion of CD19+ B cells as a percentage of total lymphocytes, g naive B cells, h classical memory B cell, i immature transitional B cells and j atypical memory B cells. Horizontal bars represent medians. Comparison between groups was performed with Mann Whitney U test. A difference with a p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant
Mentions: Demographic details of the study participants have already been reported previously [19]. At 6 months of age, the median proportion of the total CD4+ T cells in HEU was significantly lower compared to HUU children (55.2 vs. 58.4 %, p = 0.04) (Table 1). We did not find any significant differences in the CD4 T cell subsets between the two groups at all time points (Data not shown). Median proportion of CD8+ T cells was similar between HEU children compared to their HUU counterparts (35.1 vs. 32.6 %, p = 0.15) (Fig. 1a). No differences were observed in the median proportions of total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells between HEU and HUU children at 12 months: CD4+ (54.8 vs. 51.1 %, p = 0.621), CD8+ (36.4 vs. 39.3 %, p = 0.634) and 18 months:CD4+(54.8 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.052), CD8+ T cells (36.7 vs. 41.7 %, p = 0.056) (Table 1). HEU children had significantly higher ratio of CD4:CD8 (p = 0.05) compared to HUU children (Table 1).Table 1

Bottom Line: As a result of successful PMTCT programs, children born from HIV-infected mothers are now effectively protected from contracting the infection.At 6 months of age, HEU children had a lower percentage of total CD4(+) T cells compared to HUU children and a lower proportion of naïve CD8(+) T cells but higher percentage of effector memory CD8(+) T cells compared to HUU children.The study showed that the subtle variations in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets observed at 6 months do not last beyond 12 months of age, suggesting that HEU children have a robust cell-mediated immune system during first year of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi. herbert.longwe@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: As a result of successful PMTCT programs, children born from HIV-infected mothers are now effectively protected from contracting the infection. However, it is not well known whether in utero exposure to the virus and the subsequent exposure to Cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis affect the cell mediated immune system of the children. This observational prospective study was aimed at determining how CD4(+) T, CD8(+) T and B cell subsets varied in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children at different ages.

Methods: We recruited HEU and HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children from 6 months of age and followed them up until they were 18 months old. HEU children received daily CTX prophylaxis beginning at 6 weeks of age until when 12 months of age. Venous blood samples were collected 6 monthly and analysed for different subsets of CD8(+) T, B cells and totalCD4(+) T cells.

Results: At 6 months of age, HEU children had a lower percentage of total CD4(+) T cells compared to HUU children and a lower proportion of naïve CD8(+) T cells but higher percentage of effector memory CD8(+) T cells compared to HUU children. HEU and HUU children had similar proportions of all B cell subsets at all ages.

Conclusions: The study showed that the subtle variations in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets observed at 6 months do not last beyond 12 months of age, suggesting that HEU children have a robust cell-mediated immune system during first year of life.

Trial registration: This article report is not based on results of a controlled health-care intervention.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus