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Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.

Ene IV, Walker LA, Schiavone M, Lee KK, Martin-Yken H, Dague E, Gow NA, Munro CA, Brown AJ - MBio (2015)

Bottom Line: Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness.The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock.Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Calcineurin signaling regulates carbon source-induced cell wall remodeling. (A) To examine the transitions between two different cell wall states, wild-type C. albicans cells were transferred from one carbon source to another, and the effects on their osmotic stress resistance were measured every 30 min for 4 h. Control cells were transferred to the same carbon source (i.e., from lactate to lactate or from glucose to glucose). At each time point, cells were exposed to 2 M NaCl and then cell viability was measured (CFU). Resistance levels are expressed as percent CFU relative to the corresponding unstressed control. (B) The changes in osmotic stress resistance (2 M NaCl) observed for wild-type and cna1Δ (catalytic subunit of calcineurin) cells grown on glucose following their transfer to lactate media. Data representing the levels of osmotic stress resistance of cells grown on lactate and transferred to lactate are shown on the right side of the graph. (C) Levels of osmotic stress resistance of glucose- and lactate-grown mutants with defects in calcineurin (cna1Δ) or the calcineurin-regulated transcription factor (crz1Δ) relative to those seen with their wild-type controls. Relative resistance data represent the ratios between the resistance of the mutant and that of the corresponding wild-type control. Boxes are colored according to the scale on the right (with dark red reflecting a relatively large impact on stress resistance).
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fig8: Calcineurin signaling regulates carbon source-induced cell wall remodeling. (A) To examine the transitions between two different cell wall states, wild-type C. albicans cells were transferred from one carbon source to another, and the effects on their osmotic stress resistance were measured every 30 min for 4 h. Control cells were transferred to the same carbon source (i.e., from lactate to lactate or from glucose to glucose). At each time point, cells were exposed to 2 M NaCl and then cell viability was measured (CFU). Resistance levels are expressed as percent CFU relative to the corresponding unstressed control. (B) The changes in osmotic stress resistance (2 M NaCl) observed for wild-type and cna1Δ (catalytic subunit of calcineurin) cells grown on glucose following their transfer to lactate media. Data representing the levels of osmotic stress resistance of cells grown on lactate and transferred to lactate are shown on the right side of the graph. (C) Levels of osmotic stress resistance of glucose- and lactate-grown mutants with defects in calcineurin (cna1Δ) or the calcineurin-regulated transcription factor (crz1Δ) relative to those seen with their wild-type controls. Relative resistance data represent the ratios between the resistance of the mutant and that of the corresponding wild-type control. Boxes are colored according to the scale on the right (with dark red reflecting a relatively large impact on stress resistance).

Mentions: Control cells were grown on glucose or lactate and then transferred to fresh media containing the same carbon source. These cells maintained relatively constant levels of osmotic stress resistance throughout the experiment: glucose-grown cells remained relatively sensitive, and lactate-grown cells maintained their high resistance to NaCl exposure (Fig. 8A). Following their transfer to glucose medium, lactate-grown cells gradually lost their resistance over 3 h. Meanwhile, glucose-grown cells acquired osmotic stress resistance within 1 h of transfer to lactate medium (Fig. 8A). These transitions were slow compared to the rapid changes in cell wall architecture that occur following hyperosmotic shock, and hence the transition from one preadapted state to the other may require new cell wall synthesis. However, these timescales do not simply correlate with the growth rates on these carbon sources: the populations of these C. albicans cells double every 50 min on glucose and every 230 min on lactate (58). Therefore, these transitions may also involve the differential regulation of cell wall cross-linking enzymes (40).


Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.

Ene IV, Walker LA, Schiavone M, Lee KK, Martin-Yken H, Dague E, Gow NA, Munro CA, Brown AJ - MBio (2015)

Calcineurin signaling regulates carbon source-induced cell wall remodeling. (A) To examine the transitions between two different cell wall states, wild-type C. albicans cells were transferred from one carbon source to another, and the effects on their osmotic stress resistance were measured every 30 min for 4 h. Control cells were transferred to the same carbon source (i.e., from lactate to lactate or from glucose to glucose). At each time point, cells were exposed to 2 M NaCl and then cell viability was measured (CFU). Resistance levels are expressed as percent CFU relative to the corresponding unstressed control. (B) The changes in osmotic stress resistance (2 M NaCl) observed for wild-type and cna1Δ (catalytic subunit of calcineurin) cells grown on glucose following their transfer to lactate media. Data representing the levels of osmotic stress resistance of cells grown on lactate and transferred to lactate are shown on the right side of the graph. (C) Levels of osmotic stress resistance of glucose- and lactate-grown mutants with defects in calcineurin (cna1Δ) or the calcineurin-regulated transcription factor (crz1Δ) relative to those seen with their wild-type controls. Relative resistance data represent the ratios between the resistance of the mutant and that of the corresponding wild-type control. Boxes are colored according to the scale on the right (with dark red reflecting a relatively large impact on stress resistance).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4551979&req=5

fig8: Calcineurin signaling regulates carbon source-induced cell wall remodeling. (A) To examine the transitions between two different cell wall states, wild-type C. albicans cells were transferred from one carbon source to another, and the effects on their osmotic stress resistance were measured every 30 min for 4 h. Control cells were transferred to the same carbon source (i.e., from lactate to lactate or from glucose to glucose). At each time point, cells were exposed to 2 M NaCl and then cell viability was measured (CFU). Resistance levels are expressed as percent CFU relative to the corresponding unstressed control. (B) The changes in osmotic stress resistance (2 M NaCl) observed for wild-type and cna1Δ (catalytic subunit of calcineurin) cells grown on glucose following their transfer to lactate media. Data representing the levels of osmotic stress resistance of cells grown on lactate and transferred to lactate are shown on the right side of the graph. (C) Levels of osmotic stress resistance of glucose- and lactate-grown mutants with defects in calcineurin (cna1Δ) or the calcineurin-regulated transcription factor (crz1Δ) relative to those seen with their wild-type controls. Relative resistance data represent the ratios between the resistance of the mutant and that of the corresponding wild-type control. Boxes are colored according to the scale on the right (with dark red reflecting a relatively large impact on stress resistance).
Mentions: Control cells were grown on glucose or lactate and then transferred to fresh media containing the same carbon source. These cells maintained relatively constant levels of osmotic stress resistance throughout the experiment: glucose-grown cells remained relatively sensitive, and lactate-grown cells maintained their high resistance to NaCl exposure (Fig. 8A). Following their transfer to glucose medium, lactate-grown cells gradually lost their resistance over 3 h. Meanwhile, glucose-grown cells acquired osmotic stress resistance within 1 h of transfer to lactate medium (Fig. 8A). These transitions were slow compared to the rapid changes in cell wall architecture that occur following hyperosmotic shock, and hence the transition from one preadapted state to the other may require new cell wall synthesis. However, these timescales do not simply correlate with the growth rates on these carbon sources: the populations of these C. albicans cells double every 50 min on glucose and every 230 min on lactate (58). Therefore, these transitions may also involve the differential regulation of cell wall cross-linking enzymes (40).

Bottom Line: Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness.The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock.Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus