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Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

Zou C, Jin X, Zhu R, Gong G, Sun L, Dai J, Meng D, Wang X, Li J, Wu S, Liu X, Wu J, Jiang L - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity.The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions.This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration &Development (RIPED), Beijing, 100083, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

No MeSH data available.


Adjustment of the surface chemical compositions of the templates to simulate the wettability of shale.Panel I is a schematic of the mechanism for adjusting the chemical composition via CVD. (a) General view of the structure of the templates. (b–d) Illustration of the chemical composition after the templates have been subjected to different chemical treatments. (e,f) Specific characterizations. Panel II shows the fluidic contact angle characterizations. (g) The variations of the water contact angle (CA) on templates and shale with different chemical treatments. (h) CA variations on the templates and shale after different chemical treatments. CA variations of water and oil exhibited similar trends on the corresponding solid surfaces. The CAs of fluids may differ on the template and shale surfaces within the same treatment because their surface micro-geometries are distinctive. (i–l) CA images of water and oil on different surfaces subjected to different treatments. The results demonstrate that simulating the wettability of shale by tuning the surface chemical composition of the templates is feasible.
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f2: Adjustment of the surface chemical compositions of the templates to simulate the wettability of shale.Panel I is a schematic of the mechanism for adjusting the chemical composition via CVD. (a) General view of the structure of the templates. (b–d) Illustration of the chemical composition after the templates have been subjected to different chemical treatments. (e,f) Specific characterizations. Panel II shows the fluidic contact angle characterizations. (g) The variations of the water contact angle (CA) on templates and shale with different chemical treatments. (h) CA variations on the templates and shale after different chemical treatments. CA variations of water and oil exhibited similar trends on the corresponding solid surfaces. The CAs of fluids may differ on the template and shale surfaces within the same treatment because their surface micro-geometries are distinctive. (i–l) CA images of water and oil on different surfaces subjected to different treatments. The results demonstrate that simulating the wettability of shale by tuning the surface chemical composition of the templates is feasible.

Mentions: Although the templates can mimic the shale pores in physical shape, the templates must also exhibit wetting behaviours similar to those of shale, to fully simulate the fluidic occurrence states in shale pore throats. Using chemical vapour deposition (CVD)2021 in the surface modification of the solids, we prepared templates with a chemical composition similar to that of shale, as illustrated in Fig. 2. The CAs and the CA variations of water and oil were tested on the surfaces of fluorinated, alkylated and untreated templates as well as on rock samples. The results indicate that oil and water have similar contact angles and identical CA variations on the surfaces of the templates and the surfaces of shale (Fig. 2). They further indicate that identification and simulation of the storage and migration of the liquid phase in shale pore throats through the use of such nanoporous templates is feasible in terms of surface adjustment. Therefore, the feasibility of using nano-channelled porous templates to simulate shale has been verified physically and chemically.


Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

Zou C, Jin X, Zhu R, Gong G, Sun L, Dai J, Meng D, Wang X, Li J, Wu S, Liu X, Wu J, Jiang L - Sci Rep (2015)

Adjustment of the surface chemical compositions of the templates to simulate the wettability of shale.Panel I is a schematic of the mechanism for adjusting the chemical composition via CVD. (a) General view of the structure of the templates. (b–d) Illustration of the chemical composition after the templates have been subjected to different chemical treatments. (e,f) Specific characterizations. Panel II shows the fluidic contact angle characterizations. (g) The variations of the water contact angle (CA) on templates and shale with different chemical treatments. (h) CA variations on the templates and shale after different chemical treatments. CA variations of water and oil exhibited similar trends on the corresponding solid surfaces. The CAs of fluids may differ on the template and shale surfaces within the same treatment because their surface micro-geometries are distinctive. (i–l) CA images of water and oil on different surfaces subjected to different treatments. The results demonstrate that simulating the wettability of shale by tuning the surface chemical composition of the templates is feasible.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4551973&req=5

f2: Adjustment of the surface chemical compositions of the templates to simulate the wettability of shale.Panel I is a schematic of the mechanism for adjusting the chemical composition via CVD. (a) General view of the structure of the templates. (b–d) Illustration of the chemical composition after the templates have been subjected to different chemical treatments. (e,f) Specific characterizations. Panel II shows the fluidic contact angle characterizations. (g) The variations of the water contact angle (CA) on templates and shale with different chemical treatments. (h) CA variations on the templates and shale after different chemical treatments. CA variations of water and oil exhibited similar trends on the corresponding solid surfaces. The CAs of fluids may differ on the template and shale surfaces within the same treatment because their surface micro-geometries are distinctive. (i–l) CA images of water and oil on different surfaces subjected to different treatments. The results demonstrate that simulating the wettability of shale by tuning the surface chemical composition of the templates is feasible.
Mentions: Although the templates can mimic the shale pores in physical shape, the templates must also exhibit wetting behaviours similar to those of shale, to fully simulate the fluidic occurrence states in shale pore throats. Using chemical vapour deposition (CVD)2021 in the surface modification of the solids, we prepared templates with a chemical composition similar to that of shale, as illustrated in Fig. 2. The CAs and the CA variations of water and oil were tested on the surfaces of fluorinated, alkylated and untreated templates as well as on rock samples. The results indicate that oil and water have similar contact angles and identical CA variations on the surfaces of the templates and the surfaces of shale (Fig. 2). They further indicate that identification and simulation of the storage and migration of the liquid phase in shale pore throats through the use of such nanoporous templates is feasible in terms of surface adjustment. Therefore, the feasibility of using nano-channelled porous templates to simulate shale has been verified physically and chemically.

Bottom Line: On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity.The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions.This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration &Development (RIPED), Beijing, 100083, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

No MeSH data available.