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Influence of Active Recovery on Cardiovascular Function During Ice Hockey.

Burr JF, Slysz JT, Boulter MS, Warburton DE - Sports Med Open (2015)

Bottom Line: In both conditions, players skated up to 85 % of age-predicted heart rate maximum, followed by either passive recovery or active recovery while hemodynamic measures were tracked for up to 180 s of rest.Light active recovery within the confines of an ice hockey bench, while wearing skates and protective gear, was effective for augmenting cardiac output (an average of 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min, p = 0.03) at 45, 50, and 120 s.Evidence that light activity in the form of standing/pacing is effective for maintaining cardiac output, and thus venous returnIncreased cardiac output and venous return may help reduce the chances of poor perfusion (ischemia) and could also promote recovery for performanceThis is a simple, low-risk, intervention demonstrated for the first time to work within the confines of a player's bench while wearing hockey gear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Laboratory, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 Canada ; Human Performance and Health Research Laboratory, University of PEI, Charlottetown, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ice hockey is a popular sport comprised of high-intensity repeated bouts of activity. Light activity, as opposed to passive rest, has been shown to improve power output in repeated sprinting and could potentially help to offset venous pooling, poor perfusion, and the risk of an ischemic event. The objective of our study was, thus, to examine the efficacy of low-intensity lower body activity following a simulated hockey shift for altering hemodynamic function.

Methods: In a cross-over design, 15 healthy hockey players (23 ± 1 years, 54 ± 3 mL/kg/min) performed two simulated hockey shifts. In both conditions, players skated up to 85 % of age-predicted heart rate maximum, followed by either passive recovery or active recovery while hemodynamic measures were tracked for up to 180 s of rest.

Results: Light active recovery within the confines of an ice hockey bench, while wearing skates and protective gear, was effective for augmenting cardiac output (an average of 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min, p = 0.03) at 45, 50, and 120 s. These alterations were driven by a sustained elevation in heart rate (12 bpm, p = 0.05) combined with a physiological relevant but non-significant (11.6 mL, p = 0.06) increase in stroke volume.

Conclusions: Standing and pacing between shifts offers a realistic in-game solution to help slow the precipitous drop in cardiac output (heart rate and stroke volume) that typically occurs with passive rest. Prolonging the duration of an elevated cardiac output further into recovery may be beneficial for promoting recovery of the working skeletal muscles and also avoiding venous pooling and reduced myocardial perfusion.

Key points: Evidence that light activity in the form of standing/pacing is effective for maintaining cardiac output, and thus venous returnIncreased cardiac output and venous return may help reduce the chances of poor perfusion (ischemia) and could also promote recovery for performanceThis is a simple, low-risk, intervention demonstrated for the first time to work within the confines of a player's bench while wearing hockey gear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Independent graphical representation of each of the components of cardiac output. These figures demonstrate the recovery response of heart rate (a) and stroke volume (b) following skating exercise in hockey players who either sat passively (solid line) or stood and paced (dashed line) at the bench. * p<0.05
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Fig2: Independent graphical representation of each of the components of cardiac output. These figures demonstrate the recovery response of heart rate (a) and stroke volume (b) following skating exercise in hockey players who either sat passively (solid line) or stood and paced (dashed line) at the bench. * p<0.05

Mentions: There was no difference in the level of exertion reached during a simulated shift between recovery conditions, with players skating up to a mean intensity of 83 ± 7 % (197 ± 1 bpm) and 84 ± 6 % (198 ± 1 bpm) of age-predicted HRmax for the passive and active trials, respectively. Similarly, no differences existed in hemodynamic variables at the end of the exercise period immediately prior to the initiation of recovery, which for the purposes of this study represent baseline values as the recovery phase was the time period of interest. As can be seen in Fig. 1, an interaction between time and recovery condition was observed for Q (p = 0.03), such that the difference in Q between groups increased throughout rest, reaching a statistically different value of approximately 2.5 L/min at 45 s, which was maintained at 60 and 120 s post exercise before values began to converge by the final measurement at 180 s. Examination of the contributing factors to Q (Fig. 2) revealed alterations over time for both HR (p < 0.001) and SV (p = 0.004) as they returned toward resting levels. There was also a main effect on HR by condition (p = 0.05) with differences between groups presenting at 45 s of recovery and persisting until through the 120-s measurement. Although a clear trend was apparent for alterations in SV by recovery condition, this did not reach significance (p = 0.06). Importantly, the changes in SV would be considered to be of physiological importance [21]. Related hemodynamic variables are presented in Table 2, where it can be seen that only cardiac index (expressed relative to body size) and left heart work index differed between recovery conditions.Fig. 1


Influence of Active Recovery on Cardiovascular Function During Ice Hockey.

Burr JF, Slysz JT, Boulter MS, Warburton DE - Sports Med Open (2015)

Independent graphical representation of each of the components of cardiac output. These figures demonstrate the recovery response of heart rate (a) and stroke volume (b) following skating exercise in hockey players who either sat passively (solid line) or stood and paced (dashed line) at the bench. * p<0.05
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4551551&req=5

Fig2: Independent graphical representation of each of the components of cardiac output. These figures demonstrate the recovery response of heart rate (a) and stroke volume (b) following skating exercise in hockey players who either sat passively (solid line) or stood and paced (dashed line) at the bench. * p<0.05
Mentions: There was no difference in the level of exertion reached during a simulated shift between recovery conditions, with players skating up to a mean intensity of 83 ± 7 % (197 ± 1 bpm) and 84 ± 6 % (198 ± 1 bpm) of age-predicted HRmax for the passive and active trials, respectively. Similarly, no differences existed in hemodynamic variables at the end of the exercise period immediately prior to the initiation of recovery, which for the purposes of this study represent baseline values as the recovery phase was the time period of interest. As can be seen in Fig. 1, an interaction between time and recovery condition was observed for Q (p = 0.03), such that the difference in Q between groups increased throughout rest, reaching a statistically different value of approximately 2.5 L/min at 45 s, which was maintained at 60 and 120 s post exercise before values began to converge by the final measurement at 180 s. Examination of the contributing factors to Q (Fig. 2) revealed alterations over time for both HR (p < 0.001) and SV (p = 0.004) as they returned toward resting levels. There was also a main effect on HR by condition (p = 0.05) with differences between groups presenting at 45 s of recovery and persisting until through the 120-s measurement. Although a clear trend was apparent for alterations in SV by recovery condition, this did not reach significance (p = 0.06). Importantly, the changes in SV would be considered to be of physiological importance [21]. Related hemodynamic variables are presented in Table 2, where it can be seen that only cardiac index (expressed relative to body size) and left heart work index differed between recovery conditions.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: In both conditions, players skated up to 85 % of age-predicted heart rate maximum, followed by either passive recovery or active recovery while hemodynamic measures were tracked for up to 180 s of rest.Light active recovery within the confines of an ice hockey bench, while wearing skates and protective gear, was effective for augmenting cardiac output (an average of 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min, p = 0.03) at 45, 50, and 120 s.Evidence that light activity in the form of standing/pacing is effective for maintaining cardiac output, and thus venous returnIncreased cardiac output and venous return may help reduce the chances of poor perfusion (ischemia) and could also promote recovery for performanceThis is a simple, low-risk, intervention demonstrated for the first time to work within the confines of a player's bench while wearing hockey gear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Laboratory, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 Canada ; Human Performance and Health Research Laboratory, University of PEI, Charlottetown, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ice hockey is a popular sport comprised of high-intensity repeated bouts of activity. Light activity, as opposed to passive rest, has been shown to improve power output in repeated sprinting and could potentially help to offset venous pooling, poor perfusion, and the risk of an ischemic event. The objective of our study was, thus, to examine the efficacy of low-intensity lower body activity following a simulated hockey shift for altering hemodynamic function.

Methods: In a cross-over design, 15 healthy hockey players (23 ± 1 years, 54 ± 3 mL/kg/min) performed two simulated hockey shifts. In both conditions, players skated up to 85 % of age-predicted heart rate maximum, followed by either passive recovery or active recovery while hemodynamic measures were tracked for up to 180 s of rest.

Results: Light active recovery within the confines of an ice hockey bench, while wearing skates and protective gear, was effective for augmenting cardiac output (an average of 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min, p = 0.03) at 45, 50, and 120 s. These alterations were driven by a sustained elevation in heart rate (12 bpm, p = 0.05) combined with a physiological relevant but non-significant (11.6 mL, p = 0.06) increase in stroke volume.

Conclusions: Standing and pacing between shifts offers a realistic in-game solution to help slow the precipitous drop in cardiac output (heart rate and stroke volume) that typically occurs with passive rest. Prolonging the duration of an elevated cardiac output further into recovery may be beneficial for promoting recovery of the working skeletal muscles and also avoiding venous pooling and reduced myocardial perfusion.

Key points: Evidence that light activity in the form of standing/pacing is effective for maintaining cardiac output, and thus venous returnIncreased cardiac output and venous return may help reduce the chances of poor perfusion (ischemia) and could also promote recovery for performanceThis is a simple, low-risk, intervention demonstrated for the first time to work within the confines of a player's bench while wearing hockey gear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus