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Biostimulants in agriculture.

Brown P, Saa S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis Davis, CA, USA.

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Since biostimulants are derived from an incredibly diverse set of biological and inorganic materials (Calvo et al., ) including microbial fermentations of animal or plant feedstock, living microbial cultures, macro, and micro-alga, protein hydrolysate, humic, and fulvic substances, composts, manures, food, and industrial wastes prepared using widely divergent industrial manufacturing processes, it is illogical to assume that there is a single mode of action... The definition of biostimulants adopted by EBIC specifies that these materials should not function by virtue of the presence of essential mineral elements, known plant hormones or disease suppressive molecules... Accepting this definition, we hypothesize that biostimulants benefit plant productivity by interacting with plant signaling processes thereby reducing negative plant response to stress... This hypothesis recognizes the wealth of recent research demonstrating that plant response to stress is regulated by signaling molecules that may be generated by the plant or its associated microbial populations (Marasco et al., ; Bakker et al., ; Vandenkoornhuyse et al., )... Biostimulants may either directly interact with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast, and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant (Figure 1)... The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism... In almond grown under high nutrient supply conditions biostimulants derived from either seaweed or microbial fermentation of cereal grains, had a marked positive effect on shoot growth and leaf area (Saa et al., )... Under conditions of low nutrient supply the benefit was less significant though there was a marked increase in rubidium uptake (an analog for K uptake)... Using high resolution elemental mapping techniques (μ-Xray Florescence) the movement of Zn to the phloem following application of a combination of biostimulant and zinc sulfate was elegantly demonstrated... This research did not determine if the addition of the biostimulant enhanced Zn uptake by increasing Zn movement through the leaf surface and subsequent transport of Zn to the phloem, or if the enhanced transport was a result of increased sink strength as was observed when this same product was used in Almond (Saa et al., )... The authors concluded that the essential oil from G. procumbens could be a valuable natural source of methyl salicylic acid (MeSA) for biocontrol applications... The application of salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to have negative effects on plant productivity either as a result of direct toxicity or changes in allocation of assimilates to plant defense responses... Many biostimulants contain simple and complex carbohydrates that when applied to plant may alter metabolism by directly acting as a source of energy for endophytic and non-endophytic microbial populations or acting as signaling molecules.

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Non-lethal stress is experienced to varying degrees by all crop plants resulting in a loss of productivity as assimilates are diverted to stress response metabolism (top figure). It is hypothesized that biostimulants interacting with plant signaling processes reduce the extent of negative plant response to stress and increase the allocation of biomass to the harvested yield component.
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Figure 1: Non-lethal stress is experienced to varying degrees by all crop plants resulting in a loss of productivity as assimilates are diverted to stress response metabolism (top figure). It is hypothesized that biostimulants interacting with plant signaling processes reduce the extent of negative plant response to stress and increase the allocation of biomass to the harvested yield component.

Mentions: The definition of biostimulants adopted by EBIC specifies that these materials should not function by virtue of the presence of essential mineral elements, known plant hormones or disease suppressive molecules. Accepting this definition, we hypothesize that biostimulants benefit plant productivity by interacting with plant signaling processes thereby reducing negative plant response to stress. This hypothesis recognizes the wealth of recent research demonstrating that plant response to stress is regulated by signaling molecules that may be generated by the plant or its associated microbial populations (Marasco et al., 2012; Bakker et al., 2014; Vandenkoornhuyse et al., 2015). Biostimulants may either directly interact with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast, and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant (Figure 1). The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism.


Biostimulants in agriculture.

Brown P, Saa S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Non-lethal stress is experienced to varying degrees by all crop plants resulting in a loss of productivity as assimilates are diverted to stress response metabolism (top figure). It is hypothesized that biostimulants interacting with plant signaling processes reduce the extent of negative plant response to stress and increase the allocation of biomass to the harvested yield component.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4550782&req=5

Figure 1: Non-lethal stress is experienced to varying degrees by all crop plants resulting in a loss of productivity as assimilates are diverted to stress response metabolism (top figure). It is hypothesized that biostimulants interacting with plant signaling processes reduce the extent of negative plant response to stress and increase the allocation of biomass to the harvested yield component.
Mentions: The definition of biostimulants adopted by EBIC specifies that these materials should not function by virtue of the presence of essential mineral elements, known plant hormones or disease suppressive molecules. Accepting this definition, we hypothesize that biostimulants benefit plant productivity by interacting with plant signaling processes thereby reducing negative plant response to stress. This hypothesis recognizes the wealth of recent research demonstrating that plant response to stress is regulated by signaling molecules that may be generated by the plant or its associated microbial populations (Marasco et al., 2012; Bakker et al., 2014; Vandenkoornhuyse et al., 2015). Biostimulants may either directly interact with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast, and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant (Figure 1). The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis Davis, CA, USA.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Since biostimulants are derived from an incredibly diverse set of biological and inorganic materials (Calvo et al., ) including microbial fermentations of animal or plant feedstock, living microbial cultures, macro, and micro-alga, protein hydrolysate, humic, and fulvic substances, composts, manures, food, and industrial wastes prepared using widely divergent industrial manufacturing processes, it is illogical to assume that there is a single mode of action... The definition of biostimulants adopted by EBIC specifies that these materials should not function by virtue of the presence of essential mineral elements, known plant hormones or disease suppressive molecules... Accepting this definition, we hypothesize that biostimulants benefit plant productivity by interacting with plant signaling processes thereby reducing negative plant response to stress... This hypothesis recognizes the wealth of recent research demonstrating that plant response to stress is regulated by signaling molecules that may be generated by the plant or its associated microbial populations (Marasco et al., ; Bakker et al., ; Vandenkoornhuyse et al., )... Biostimulants may either directly interact with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast, and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant (Figure 1)... The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism... In almond grown under high nutrient supply conditions biostimulants derived from either seaweed or microbial fermentation of cereal grains, had a marked positive effect on shoot growth and leaf area (Saa et al., )... Under conditions of low nutrient supply the benefit was less significant though there was a marked increase in rubidium uptake (an analog for K uptake)... Using high resolution elemental mapping techniques (μ-Xray Florescence) the movement of Zn to the phloem following application of a combination of biostimulant and zinc sulfate was elegantly demonstrated... This research did not determine if the addition of the biostimulant enhanced Zn uptake by increasing Zn movement through the leaf surface and subsequent transport of Zn to the phloem, or if the enhanced transport was a result of increased sink strength as was observed when this same product was used in Almond (Saa et al., )... The authors concluded that the essential oil from G. procumbens could be a valuable natural source of methyl salicylic acid (MeSA) for biocontrol applications... The application of salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to have negative effects on plant productivity either as a result of direct toxicity or changes in allocation of assimilates to plant defense responses... Many biostimulants contain simple and complex carbohydrates that when applied to plant may alter metabolism by directly acting as a source of energy for endophytic and non-endophytic microbial populations or acting as signaling molecules.

No MeSH data available.