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Amiodarone induces cell wall channel formation in yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

Kalebina TS, Sokolov SS, Selyakh IO, Vanichkina DP, Severin FF - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: Electron microphotographs show that amiodarone induces the formation of channels 50-80 nm in diameter in the cell wall that appear to be filled with intracellular material.Using fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate MitoTracker-positive DNA-containing structures visibly extruded from the cells through these channels.We speculate that the observed channel formation acts to enable the secretion of mitochondrial material from the cell under stressful conditions, thus enabling adaptive changes to the extracellular environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1-12 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 Russia.

ABSTRACT
The yeast cell wall is constantly remodeled to enable cell growth and division. In this study, we describe a novel type of cell wall modification. We report that the drug amiodarone induces rapid channel formation within the cell wall of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Light microscopy shows that shortly after adding amiodarone, spherical structures, which can be stained with DNA binding dyes, form on the cell surface. Electron microphotographs show that amiodarone induces the formation of channels 50-80 nm in diameter in the cell wall that appear to be filled with intracellular material. Using fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate MitoTracker-positive DNA-containing structures visibly extruded from the cells through these channels. We speculate that the observed channel formation acts to enable the secretion of mitochondrial material from the cell under stressful conditions, thus enabling adaptive changes to the extracellular environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Untreated Hansenula polymorpha cells (a) or cells treated with amiodarone (b). Left—DIC microscopy; right—fluorescence microscopy images of cells after Mitotracker Red treatment. Arrowheads show a Mitotracker-positive protrusion. All pictures are of the same scale. Bar length 5 μm
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Fig4: Untreated Hansenula polymorpha cells (a) or cells treated with amiodarone (b). Left—DIC microscopy; right—fluorescence microscopy images of cells after Mitotracker Red treatment. Arrowheads show a Mitotracker-positive protrusion. All pictures are of the same scale. Bar length 5 μm

Mentions: At the same time, it is known that the formation of mitoptotic bodies and extrusion of mitochondrial material from the cell (mitoptosis) serves as a protection of eucaryotic cells under conditions of mitochondrial stress (Lyamzaev et al. 2008). Thus, it is tempting to suggest that, similar to stressed mammalian cells, in yeasts amiodarone stimulates mitoptosis, and the cells get rid of mitochondria through the channels in the cell wall. We observed MitoTracker-positive structures that were visibly detected as protrusions on the cell surface after amiodarone treatment (Fig. 4). It also can be seen that the MitoTracker staining is more diffuse in the treated cells. This is not surprising: in S. cerevisiae, high concentrations of amiodarone cause major changes in mitochondria: at first, they hyperpolarize them, inducing fragmentation, and later mitochondria depolarize and rupture (Pozniakovsky et al. 2005; Ozhovan et al. 2009). We speculate that the PI- and MitoTracker-stained extracellular material identified as mitochondrion-like particles surrounded by a membrane were indeed mitochondria, and the observed process was mitoptosis.Fig. 4


Amiodarone induces cell wall channel formation in yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

Kalebina TS, Sokolov SS, Selyakh IO, Vanichkina DP, Severin FF - Springerplus (2015)

Untreated Hansenula polymorpha cells (a) or cells treated with amiodarone (b). Left—DIC microscopy; right—fluorescence microscopy images of cells after Mitotracker Red treatment. Arrowheads show a Mitotracker-positive protrusion. All pictures are of the same scale. Bar length 5 μm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549368&req=5

Fig4: Untreated Hansenula polymorpha cells (a) or cells treated with amiodarone (b). Left—DIC microscopy; right—fluorescence microscopy images of cells after Mitotracker Red treatment. Arrowheads show a Mitotracker-positive protrusion. All pictures are of the same scale. Bar length 5 μm
Mentions: At the same time, it is known that the formation of mitoptotic bodies and extrusion of mitochondrial material from the cell (mitoptosis) serves as a protection of eucaryotic cells under conditions of mitochondrial stress (Lyamzaev et al. 2008). Thus, it is tempting to suggest that, similar to stressed mammalian cells, in yeasts amiodarone stimulates mitoptosis, and the cells get rid of mitochondria through the channels in the cell wall. We observed MitoTracker-positive structures that were visibly detected as protrusions on the cell surface after amiodarone treatment (Fig. 4). It also can be seen that the MitoTracker staining is more diffuse in the treated cells. This is not surprising: in S. cerevisiae, high concentrations of amiodarone cause major changes in mitochondria: at first, they hyperpolarize them, inducing fragmentation, and later mitochondria depolarize and rupture (Pozniakovsky et al. 2005; Ozhovan et al. 2009). We speculate that the PI- and MitoTracker-stained extracellular material identified as mitochondrion-like particles surrounded by a membrane were indeed mitochondria, and the observed process was mitoptosis.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Electron microphotographs show that amiodarone induces the formation of channels 50-80 nm in diameter in the cell wall that appear to be filled with intracellular material.Using fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate MitoTracker-positive DNA-containing structures visibly extruded from the cells through these channels.We speculate that the observed channel formation acts to enable the secretion of mitochondrial material from the cell under stressful conditions, thus enabling adaptive changes to the extracellular environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1-12 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 Russia.

ABSTRACT
The yeast cell wall is constantly remodeled to enable cell growth and division. In this study, we describe a novel type of cell wall modification. We report that the drug amiodarone induces rapid channel formation within the cell wall of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Light microscopy shows that shortly after adding amiodarone, spherical structures, which can be stained with DNA binding dyes, form on the cell surface. Electron microphotographs show that amiodarone induces the formation of channels 50-80 nm in diameter in the cell wall that appear to be filled with intracellular material. Using fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate MitoTracker-positive DNA-containing structures visibly extruded from the cells through these channels. We speculate that the observed channel formation acts to enable the secretion of mitochondrial material from the cell under stressful conditions, thus enabling adaptive changes to the extracellular environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus