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A review on potential neurotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

Song B, Liu J, Feng X, Wei L, Shao L - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Bottom Line: However, little is known about their potential exposure and neurotoxic effects.The recognition ability, spatial memory, and learning ability of TiO2 NPs-treated rodents were significantly impaired, which meant that accumulation of TiO2 NPs in the brain could lead to neurodegeneration.However, conclusions obtained from those studies were not consistent with each other as researchers may choose different experimental parameters, including administration ways, dosage, size, and crystal structure of TiO2 NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, 550002, China, 17055224@qq.com.

ABSTRACT
As the rapid development of nanotechnology in the past three decades, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), for their peculiar physicochemical properties, are widely applied in consumer products, food additives, cosmetics, drug carriers, and so on. However, little is known about their potential exposure and neurotoxic effects. Once NPs are unintentionally exposed to human beings, they could be absorbed, and then accumulated in the brain regions by passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or through the nose-to-brain pathway, potentially leading to dysfunctions of central nerve system (CNS). Besides, NPs may affect the brain development of embryo by crossing the placental barrier. A few in vivo and in vitro researches have demonstrated that the morphology and function of neuronal or glial cells could be impaired by TiO2 NPs which might induce cell necrosis. Cellular components, such as mitochondrial, lysosome, and cytoskeleton, could also be influenced as well. The recognition ability, spatial memory, and learning ability of TiO2 NPs-treated rodents were significantly impaired, which meant that accumulation of TiO2 NPs in the brain could lead to neurodegeneration. However, conclusions obtained from those studies were not consistent with each other as researchers may choose different experimental parameters, including administration ways, dosage, size, and crystal structure of TiO2 NPs. Therefore, in order to fully understand the potential risks of TiO2 NPs to brain health, figure out research areas where further studies are required, and improve its bio-safety for applications in the near future, how TiO2 NPs interact with the brain is investigated in this review by summarizing the current researches on neurotoxicity induced by TiO2 NPs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A diagram of the blood–brain barrier structure
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Fig1: A diagram of the blood–brain barrier structure

Mentions: The BBB is an effectively protective structure, which is mainly composed of endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes [37]. The endothelial cells are connected with each other through complicated tight junctions, while the connections are supported by the astrocytes and pericytes. On account of this sophisticated structure, only specific substances with small size or low-molecular weight (MW) could be allowed to pass through the BBB by means of three main transport patterns (passive diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis). In another word, BBB is capable of protecting the healthy and functional CNS from being affected by harmful chemicals, toxins, and drugs in the circulatory system. Whereas, NPs possess unique chemical–physical characteristics and tiny size which make them be similar to biomolecule. Therefore, they are able to pass through the BBB and enter into the CNS [38–40] (Fig. 1). On the other hand, the permeability of BBB can be altered by NPs, which could assist in influx of exogenous substances into the brain. As a result, NPs induced inflammation, edema, and cell injury or even cell death in brain regions.Fig. 1


A review on potential neurotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

Song B, Liu J, Feng X, Wei L, Shao L - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

A diagram of the blood–brain barrier structure
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549355&req=5

Fig1: A diagram of the blood–brain barrier structure
Mentions: The BBB is an effectively protective structure, which is mainly composed of endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes [37]. The endothelial cells are connected with each other through complicated tight junctions, while the connections are supported by the astrocytes and pericytes. On account of this sophisticated structure, only specific substances with small size or low-molecular weight (MW) could be allowed to pass through the BBB by means of three main transport patterns (passive diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis). In another word, BBB is capable of protecting the healthy and functional CNS from being affected by harmful chemicals, toxins, and drugs in the circulatory system. Whereas, NPs possess unique chemical–physical characteristics and tiny size which make them be similar to biomolecule. Therefore, they are able to pass through the BBB and enter into the CNS [38–40] (Fig. 1). On the other hand, the permeability of BBB can be altered by NPs, which could assist in influx of exogenous substances into the brain. As a result, NPs induced inflammation, edema, and cell injury or even cell death in brain regions.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: However, little is known about their potential exposure and neurotoxic effects.The recognition ability, spatial memory, and learning ability of TiO2 NPs-treated rodents were significantly impaired, which meant that accumulation of TiO2 NPs in the brain could lead to neurodegeneration.However, conclusions obtained from those studies were not consistent with each other as researchers may choose different experimental parameters, including administration ways, dosage, size, and crystal structure of TiO2 NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, 550002, China, 17055224@qq.com.

ABSTRACT
As the rapid development of nanotechnology in the past three decades, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), for their peculiar physicochemical properties, are widely applied in consumer products, food additives, cosmetics, drug carriers, and so on. However, little is known about their potential exposure and neurotoxic effects. Once NPs are unintentionally exposed to human beings, they could be absorbed, and then accumulated in the brain regions by passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or through the nose-to-brain pathway, potentially leading to dysfunctions of central nerve system (CNS). Besides, NPs may affect the brain development of embryo by crossing the placental barrier. A few in vivo and in vitro researches have demonstrated that the morphology and function of neuronal or glial cells could be impaired by TiO2 NPs which might induce cell necrosis. Cellular components, such as mitochondrial, lysosome, and cytoskeleton, could also be influenced as well. The recognition ability, spatial memory, and learning ability of TiO2 NPs-treated rodents were significantly impaired, which meant that accumulation of TiO2 NPs in the brain could lead to neurodegeneration. However, conclusions obtained from those studies were not consistent with each other as researchers may choose different experimental parameters, including administration ways, dosage, size, and crystal structure of TiO2 NPs. Therefore, in order to fully understand the potential risks of TiO2 NPs to brain health, figure out research areas where further studies are required, and improve its bio-safety for applications in the near future, how TiO2 NPs interact with the brain is investigated in this review by summarizing the current researches on neurotoxicity induced by TiO2 NPs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus