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Evaluation of Tangential Flow Filtration for the Concentration and Separation of Bacteria and Viruses in Contrasting Marine Environments.

Cai L, Yang Y, Jiao N, Zhang R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples.For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF.Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, Xiamen University (Xiang'an), Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China.

ABSTRACT
Tangential flow filtration (TFF), which has been widely adopted to concentrate a diverse array of microbes from water, is a promising method of microbial separation or removal. However, it is essential to select an optimal membrane suitable for the specific filtration application. This study evaluated two different scales of TFF systems for concentrating and separating microbes (including bacteria and viruses) from contrasting marine waters. Among bacteria-size membranes, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher bacterial recovery, but lower viral permeation efficiencies than polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, regardless of environments and scales of TFF. Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples. For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF. Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples. Deep ocean samples showed the lowest recovery of viruses, which was consistent with observations of bacterial recovery. Synthetically, PVDF may be more suitable for the concentration of bacterial cells, while PES would be a better choice for the collection of viruses. When compared with the PES membrane, regenerated cellulose is better for viral concentration, while PES is recommended to obtain bacteria- and virus-free seawater.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

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pone.0136741.g001: Map showing sampling sites.

Mentions: Samples were obtained from four sampling areas (Fig 1). (i) Five sites in coastal waters around the Xiamen Island, China. Two of these sites (E1 and E2) were located in the mouth of the Jiulong River, which is considered as a hypereutrophic estuary environment. The remaining sites (N1, N2, and N3) were located in the nearshore environment. (ii) A transect with three sites (PR1–PR3) along the salinity gradient from the Pearl River estuary to the open water of the South China Sea was sampled during a summer cruise. (iii) Four samples were collected from the South China Sea. (iv) Five samples were obtained from the western Pacific Ocean. No specific permissions were required for these locations and sampling activities. The field studies did not involve endangered or protected species. Detailed descriptions of the sampling stations are presented in S1 Table.


Evaluation of Tangential Flow Filtration for the Concentration and Separation of Bacteria and Viruses in Contrasting Marine Environments.

Cai L, Yang Y, Jiao N, Zhang R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Map showing sampling sites.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549332&req=5

pone.0136741.g001: Map showing sampling sites.
Mentions: Samples were obtained from four sampling areas (Fig 1). (i) Five sites in coastal waters around the Xiamen Island, China. Two of these sites (E1 and E2) were located in the mouth of the Jiulong River, which is considered as a hypereutrophic estuary environment. The remaining sites (N1, N2, and N3) were located in the nearshore environment. (ii) A transect with three sites (PR1–PR3) along the salinity gradient from the Pearl River estuary to the open water of the South China Sea was sampled during a summer cruise. (iii) Four samples were collected from the South China Sea. (iv) Five samples were obtained from the western Pacific Ocean. No specific permissions were required for these locations and sampling activities. The field studies did not involve endangered or protected species. Detailed descriptions of the sampling stations are presented in S1 Table.

Bottom Line: Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples.For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF.Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, Xiamen University (Xiang'an), Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China.

ABSTRACT
Tangential flow filtration (TFF), which has been widely adopted to concentrate a diverse array of microbes from water, is a promising method of microbial separation or removal. However, it is essential to select an optimal membrane suitable for the specific filtration application. This study evaluated two different scales of TFF systems for concentrating and separating microbes (including bacteria and viruses) from contrasting marine waters. Among bacteria-size membranes, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher bacterial recovery, but lower viral permeation efficiencies than polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, regardless of environments and scales of TFF. Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples. For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF. Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples. Deep ocean samples showed the lowest recovery of viruses, which was consistent with observations of bacterial recovery. Synthetically, PVDF may be more suitable for the concentration of bacterial cells, while PES would be a better choice for the collection of viruses. When compared with the PES membrane, regenerated cellulose is better for viral concentration, while PES is recommended to obtain bacteria- and virus-free seawater.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus