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Anesthesia and Monitoring in Small Laboratory Mammals Used in Anesthesiology, Respiratory and Critical Care Research: A Systematic Review on the Current Reporting in Top-10 Impact Factor Ranked Journals.

Uhlig C, Krause H, Koch T, Gama de Abreu M, Spieth PM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively.Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low.These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pulmonary Engineering Group, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Therapy, University Hospital Dresden, Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: This study aimed to investigate the quality of reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia in experimental studies in small laboratory mammals published in the top ten impact factor journals.

Methods: A descriptive systematic review was conducted and data was abstracted from the ten highest ranked journals with respect to impact factor in the categories 'Anesthesiology', 'Critical Care Medicine' and 'Respiratory System' as defined by the 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Inclusion criteria according to PICOS criteria were as follows: 1) population: small laboratory mammals; 2) intervention: any form of anesthesia and/or euthanasia; 3) comparison: not specified; 4) primary outcome: type of anesthesia, anesthetic agents and type of euthanasia; secondary outcome: animal characteristics, monitoring, mechanical ventilation, fluid management, postoperative pain therapy, animal care approval, sample size calculation and performed interventions; 5) study: experimental studies. Anesthesia, euthanasia, and monitoring were analyzed per performed intervention in each article.

Results: The search yielded 845 articles with 1,041 interventions of interest. Throughout the manuscripts we found poor quality and frequency of reporting with respect to completeness of data on animal characteristics as well as euthanasia, while anesthesia (732/1041, 70.3%) and interventions without survival (970/1041, 93.2%) per se were frequently reported. Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively. Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low. Euthanasia practice was reported as anesthesia (348/501, 69%), transcardial perfusion (37/501, 8%), carbon dioxide (26/501, 6%), decapitation (22/501, 5%), exsanguination (23/501, 5%), other (25/501, 5%) and not specified (20/501, 4%, respectively.

Conclusions: The present systematic review revealed insufficient reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia methods throughout experimental studies in small laboratory mammals. Specific guidelines for anesthesia and euthanasia regimens should be considered to achieve comparability, quality of animal experiments and animal welfare. These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequencies of euthanasia.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Type of Euthanasia, Anesthesia*: anesthesia overdose 121 (25%), anesthesia overdose + transcardial perfusion 135 (28%), anesthesia overdose + decapitation 38 (8%), anesthesia overdose + removal of vital organs 17 (4%), anesthesia overdose + exsanguination 37 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. B: Euthanasia drugs. Inhalational: isoflurane 47 (13%), carbon dioxide 29 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. #: urethane is not recommended as sole method for euthanasia of small laboratory mammals by the guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) guidelines for the euthanasia of animals [22] due to its slow onset of action. Other: drugs with <2% occurrence. n/s: not specified.
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pone.0134205.g004: Frequencies of euthanasia.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Type of Euthanasia, Anesthesia*: anesthesia overdose 121 (25%), anesthesia overdose + transcardial perfusion 135 (28%), anesthesia overdose + decapitation 38 (8%), anesthesia overdose + removal of vital organs 17 (4%), anesthesia overdose + exsanguination 37 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. B: Euthanasia drugs. Inhalational: isoflurane 47 (13%), carbon dioxide 29 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. #: urethane is not recommended as sole method for euthanasia of small laboratory mammals by the guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) guidelines for the euthanasia of animals [22] due to its slow onset of action. Other: drugs with <2% occurrence. n/s: not specified.

Mentions: Type and drugs used for euthanasia are shown in Fig 4. Frequency of reporting, with respect to journal category and impact factor, is shown in Table 4. Of 971 interventions (93.2% of all interventions) without survival, euthanasia was not reported in 450/971 (46.3%) and not specified in 20/971 (2.1%), respectively. Anesthetic agents were used alone in 121/501 (24.2%) of interventions with reported euthanasia method or in combination with other euthanasia methods in 227/501 (45.3%) of interventions with reported euthanasia method. Dosage of anesthetic agents was not reported in 153/348 (43.9%) and not specified in 68/348 (19.5%) of these interventions involving euthanasia, respectively. The dosages of the three most frequently used drugs were reported as follows (values given as mean ± standard deviation): 1) pentobarbital: 135.3±115.6 mg/kg (mice, intraperitoneal), 102.6±53.8 mg/kg (rats, intraperitoneal), 150.0±40.8 mg/kg (guinea pigs, intraperitoneal), 175.0±106.1 mg/kg (rabbits, intravenous); 2) isoflurane: 3.5±1.8 vol% (mice) and 3.9±1.2 vol% (rats); 3) ketamine/xylazine: 80.0±0.0/10.0±0.0 mg/kg (rats). Route of administration was not reported in 130/348 (37.3%) interventions using anesthesia for euthanasia. Inhalative, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous and intracardial administration was used in 92/348 (26.4%), 113/348 (32.5%), 11/348 (3.2%), 1/348 (0.3%) and 1/348 (0.3%) interventions using anesthesia for euthanasia. In 6/501 interventions with reported euthanasia (1.2%), the method used (single urethane overdose without additional euthanasia procedure) was deemed unacceptable for euthanasia in laboratory animals according to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) guidelines for the euthanasia of animals [22].


Anesthesia and Monitoring in Small Laboratory Mammals Used in Anesthesiology, Respiratory and Critical Care Research: A Systematic Review on the Current Reporting in Top-10 Impact Factor Ranked Journals.

Uhlig C, Krause H, Koch T, Gama de Abreu M, Spieth PM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Frequencies of euthanasia.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Type of Euthanasia, Anesthesia*: anesthesia overdose 121 (25%), anesthesia overdose + transcardial perfusion 135 (28%), anesthesia overdose + decapitation 38 (8%), anesthesia overdose + removal of vital organs 17 (4%), anesthesia overdose + exsanguination 37 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. B: Euthanasia drugs. Inhalational: isoflurane 47 (13%), carbon dioxide 29 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. #: urethane is not recommended as sole method for euthanasia of small laboratory mammals by the guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) guidelines for the euthanasia of animals [22] due to its slow onset of action. Other: drugs with <2% occurrence. n/s: not specified.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549323&req=5

pone.0134205.g004: Frequencies of euthanasia.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Type of Euthanasia, Anesthesia*: anesthesia overdose 121 (25%), anesthesia overdose + transcardial perfusion 135 (28%), anesthesia overdose + decapitation 38 (8%), anesthesia overdose + removal of vital organs 17 (4%), anesthesia overdose + exsanguination 37 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. B: Euthanasia drugs. Inhalational: isoflurane 47 (13%), carbon dioxide 29 (8%), number and percentage relative to total, respectively. #: urethane is not recommended as sole method for euthanasia of small laboratory mammals by the guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) guidelines for the euthanasia of animals [22] due to its slow onset of action. Other: drugs with <2% occurrence. n/s: not specified.
Mentions: Type and drugs used for euthanasia are shown in Fig 4. Frequency of reporting, with respect to journal category and impact factor, is shown in Table 4. Of 971 interventions (93.2% of all interventions) without survival, euthanasia was not reported in 450/971 (46.3%) and not specified in 20/971 (2.1%), respectively. Anesthetic agents were used alone in 121/501 (24.2%) of interventions with reported euthanasia method or in combination with other euthanasia methods in 227/501 (45.3%) of interventions with reported euthanasia method. Dosage of anesthetic agents was not reported in 153/348 (43.9%) and not specified in 68/348 (19.5%) of these interventions involving euthanasia, respectively. The dosages of the three most frequently used drugs were reported as follows (values given as mean ± standard deviation): 1) pentobarbital: 135.3±115.6 mg/kg (mice, intraperitoneal), 102.6±53.8 mg/kg (rats, intraperitoneal), 150.0±40.8 mg/kg (guinea pigs, intraperitoneal), 175.0±106.1 mg/kg (rabbits, intravenous); 2) isoflurane: 3.5±1.8 vol% (mice) and 3.9±1.2 vol% (rats); 3) ketamine/xylazine: 80.0±0.0/10.0±0.0 mg/kg (rats). Route of administration was not reported in 130/348 (37.3%) interventions using anesthesia for euthanasia. Inhalative, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous and intracardial administration was used in 92/348 (26.4%), 113/348 (32.5%), 11/348 (3.2%), 1/348 (0.3%) and 1/348 (0.3%) interventions using anesthesia for euthanasia. In 6/501 interventions with reported euthanasia (1.2%), the method used (single urethane overdose without additional euthanasia procedure) was deemed unacceptable for euthanasia in laboratory animals according to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) guidelines for the euthanasia of animals [22].

Bottom Line: Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively.Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low.These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pulmonary Engineering Group, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Therapy, University Hospital Dresden, Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: This study aimed to investigate the quality of reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia in experimental studies in small laboratory mammals published in the top ten impact factor journals.

Methods: A descriptive systematic review was conducted and data was abstracted from the ten highest ranked journals with respect to impact factor in the categories 'Anesthesiology', 'Critical Care Medicine' and 'Respiratory System' as defined by the 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Inclusion criteria according to PICOS criteria were as follows: 1) population: small laboratory mammals; 2) intervention: any form of anesthesia and/or euthanasia; 3) comparison: not specified; 4) primary outcome: type of anesthesia, anesthetic agents and type of euthanasia; secondary outcome: animal characteristics, monitoring, mechanical ventilation, fluid management, postoperative pain therapy, animal care approval, sample size calculation and performed interventions; 5) study: experimental studies. Anesthesia, euthanasia, and monitoring were analyzed per performed intervention in each article.

Results: The search yielded 845 articles with 1,041 interventions of interest. Throughout the manuscripts we found poor quality and frequency of reporting with respect to completeness of data on animal characteristics as well as euthanasia, while anesthesia (732/1041, 70.3%) and interventions without survival (970/1041, 93.2%) per se were frequently reported. Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively. Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low. Euthanasia practice was reported as anesthesia (348/501, 69%), transcardial perfusion (37/501, 8%), carbon dioxide (26/501, 6%), decapitation (22/501, 5%), exsanguination (23/501, 5%), other (25/501, 5%) and not specified (20/501, 4%, respectively.

Conclusions: The present systematic review revealed insufficient reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia methods throughout experimental studies in small laboratory mammals. Specific guidelines for anesthesia and euthanasia regimens should be considered to achieve comparability, quality of animal experiments and animal welfare. These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus