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Anesthesia and Monitoring in Small Laboratory Mammals Used in Anesthesiology, Respiratory and Critical Care Research: A Systematic Review on the Current Reporting in Top-10 Impact Factor Ranked Journals.

Uhlig C, Krause H, Koch T, Gama de Abreu M, Spieth PM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively.Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low.These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pulmonary Engineering Group, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Therapy, University Hospital Dresden, Dresden, Technische Universit├Ąt Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: This study aimed to investigate the quality of reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia in experimental studies in small laboratory mammals published in the top ten impact factor journals.

Methods: A descriptive systematic review was conducted and data was abstracted from the ten highest ranked journals with respect to impact factor in the categories 'Anesthesiology', 'Critical Care Medicine' and 'Respiratory System' as defined by the 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Inclusion criteria according to PICOS criteria were as follows: 1) population: small laboratory mammals; 2) intervention: any form of anesthesia and/or euthanasia; 3) comparison: not specified; 4) primary outcome: type of anesthesia, anesthetic agents and type of euthanasia; secondary outcome: animal characteristics, monitoring, mechanical ventilation, fluid management, postoperative pain therapy, animal care approval, sample size calculation and performed interventions; 5) study: experimental studies. Anesthesia, euthanasia, and monitoring were analyzed per performed intervention in each article.

Results: The search yielded 845 articles with 1,041 interventions of interest. Throughout the manuscripts we found poor quality and frequency of reporting with respect to completeness of data on animal characteristics as well as euthanasia, while anesthesia (732/1041, 70.3%) and interventions without survival (970/1041, 93.2%) per se were frequently reported. Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively. Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low. Euthanasia practice was reported as anesthesia (348/501, 69%), transcardial perfusion (37/501, 8%), carbon dioxide (26/501, 6%), decapitation (22/501, 5%), exsanguination (23/501, 5%), other (25/501, 5%) and not specified (20/501, 4%, respectively.

Conclusions: The present systematic review revealed insufficient reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia methods throughout experimental studies in small laboratory mammals. Specific guidelines for anesthesia and euthanasia regimens should be considered to achieve comparability, quality of animal experiments and animal welfare. These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequencies of anesthetic drugs.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Sedative drugs for premedication. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 56 (33%) and sevoflurane 13 (8%). B: Sedative agents for anesthesia maintenance. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 225 (31%), isoflurane/nitrous oxide 36 (5%), sevoflurane 28 (4%) and halothane 20 (3%). C: Analgesic drugs for premedication. D: Analgesic drugs for anesthesia maintenance. E: Neuromuscular blocking agents. F: Analgesics for postoperative pain therapy. Other: drugs with <1% occurrence. n/s: not specified.
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pone.0134205.g003: Frequencies of anesthetic drugs.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Sedative drugs for premedication. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 56 (33%) and sevoflurane 13 (8%). B: Sedative agents for anesthesia maintenance. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 225 (31%), isoflurane/nitrous oxide 36 (5%), sevoflurane 28 (4%) and halothane 20 (3%). C: Analgesic drugs for premedication. D: Analgesic drugs for anesthesia maintenance. E: Neuromuscular blocking agents. F: Analgesics for postoperative pain therapy. Other: drugs with <1% occurrence. n/s: not specified.

Mentions: Detailed information regarding anesthesia is summarized in Table 4, Table C in S2 File and Fig 3. Table 5 shows the dosages of the most commonly used anesthetics. Premedication was used in 169/732 (23.1%) of all interventions involving anesthesia. The use of analgesics, in addition to sedatives, for premedication was described in 32/169 premedications (18.9%). Anesthesia was not specified in 42/732 (5.7% interventions involving anesthesia). In detail, 185/690 interventions (26.8% of procedures specifying anesthesia) reported the use of analgesics in addition to sedatives for anesthesia in 117/690 (16.9% with respect to interventions involving anesthesia, and 117/610 (19.1%) with respect to painful interventions) surgical or organ injury procedures and 68/690 (9.9%) non-injurious interventions. In 12/185 (6.4%) of these remaining interventions, animals received post-operative pain therapy after procedures associated with surgery or organ injury. Regardless of intra-operative management, post-operative pain therapy was reported in 38/364 (10.4%) interventions in which animals underwent surgical procedures or organ injury with initial survival. The use of neuromuscular blocking agents was reported in 38/732 (5.2%) of the papers that described anesthetic procedures. Fluid therapy was described in 70/732 (9.6%) interventions involving anesthesia, using saline (44/70, 62.9%), lactated ringer solution (20/70, 28.6%), hydroxylethylstarch 6% (1/70, 1.4%) or dextrose 5% (1/70, 1.4%). In 4/70 interventions (5.7%), drugs for fluid therapy were not specified.


Anesthesia and Monitoring in Small Laboratory Mammals Used in Anesthesiology, Respiratory and Critical Care Research: A Systematic Review on the Current Reporting in Top-10 Impact Factor Ranked Journals.

Uhlig C, Krause H, Koch T, Gama de Abreu M, Spieth PM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Frequencies of anesthetic drugs.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Sedative drugs for premedication. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 56 (33%) and sevoflurane 13 (8%). B: Sedative agents for anesthesia maintenance. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 225 (31%), isoflurane/nitrous oxide 36 (5%), sevoflurane 28 (4%) and halothane 20 (3%). C: Analgesic drugs for premedication. D: Analgesic drugs for anesthesia maintenance. E: Neuromuscular blocking agents. F: Analgesics for postoperative pain therapy. Other: drugs with <1% occurrence. n/s: not specified.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549323&req=5

pone.0134205.g003: Frequencies of anesthetic drugs.Values are given as numbers and percentages relative to the total number (below pie diagram). A: Sedative drugs for premedication. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 56 (33%) and sevoflurane 13 (8%). B: Sedative agents for anesthesia maintenance. Inhalational anesthetics include: isoflurane 225 (31%), isoflurane/nitrous oxide 36 (5%), sevoflurane 28 (4%) and halothane 20 (3%). C: Analgesic drugs for premedication. D: Analgesic drugs for anesthesia maintenance. E: Neuromuscular blocking agents. F: Analgesics for postoperative pain therapy. Other: drugs with <1% occurrence. n/s: not specified.
Mentions: Detailed information regarding anesthesia is summarized in Table 4, Table C in S2 File and Fig 3. Table 5 shows the dosages of the most commonly used anesthetics. Premedication was used in 169/732 (23.1%) of all interventions involving anesthesia. The use of analgesics, in addition to sedatives, for premedication was described in 32/169 premedications (18.9%). Anesthesia was not specified in 42/732 (5.7% interventions involving anesthesia). In detail, 185/690 interventions (26.8% of procedures specifying anesthesia) reported the use of analgesics in addition to sedatives for anesthesia in 117/690 (16.9% with respect to interventions involving anesthesia, and 117/610 (19.1%) with respect to painful interventions) surgical or organ injury procedures and 68/690 (9.9%) non-injurious interventions. In 12/185 (6.4%) of these remaining interventions, animals received post-operative pain therapy after procedures associated with surgery or organ injury. Regardless of intra-operative management, post-operative pain therapy was reported in 38/364 (10.4%) interventions in which animals underwent surgical procedures or organ injury with initial survival. The use of neuromuscular blocking agents was reported in 38/732 (5.2%) of the papers that described anesthetic procedures. Fluid therapy was described in 70/732 (9.6%) interventions involving anesthesia, using saline (44/70, 62.9%), lactated ringer solution (20/70, 28.6%), hydroxylethylstarch 6% (1/70, 1.4%) or dextrose 5% (1/70, 1.4%). In 4/70 interventions (5.7%), drugs for fluid therapy were not specified.

Bottom Line: Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively.Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low.These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pulmonary Engineering Group, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Therapy, University Hospital Dresden, Dresden, Technische Universit├Ąt Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: This study aimed to investigate the quality of reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia in experimental studies in small laboratory mammals published in the top ten impact factor journals.

Methods: A descriptive systematic review was conducted and data was abstracted from the ten highest ranked journals with respect to impact factor in the categories 'Anesthesiology', 'Critical Care Medicine' and 'Respiratory System' as defined by the 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Inclusion criteria according to PICOS criteria were as follows: 1) population: small laboratory mammals; 2) intervention: any form of anesthesia and/or euthanasia; 3) comparison: not specified; 4) primary outcome: type of anesthesia, anesthetic agents and type of euthanasia; secondary outcome: animal characteristics, monitoring, mechanical ventilation, fluid management, postoperative pain therapy, animal care approval, sample size calculation and performed interventions; 5) study: experimental studies. Anesthesia, euthanasia, and monitoring were analyzed per performed intervention in each article.

Results: The search yielded 845 articles with 1,041 interventions of interest. Throughout the manuscripts we found poor quality and frequency of reporting with respect to completeness of data on animal characteristics as well as euthanasia, while anesthesia (732/1041, 70.3%) and interventions without survival (970/1041, 93.2%) per se were frequently reported. Premedication and neuromuscular blocking agents were reported in 169/732 (23.1%) and 38/732 (5.2%) interventions, respectively. Frequency of reporting of analgesia during (117/610, 19.1%) and after painful procedures (38/364, 10.4%) was low. Euthanasia practice was reported as anesthesia (348/501, 69%), transcardial perfusion (37/501, 8%), carbon dioxide (26/501, 6%), decapitation (22/501, 5%), exsanguination (23/501, 5%), other (25/501, 5%) and not specified (20/501, 4%, respectively.

Conclusions: The present systematic review revealed insufficient reporting of anesthesia and euthanasia methods throughout experimental studies in small laboratory mammals. Specific guidelines for anesthesia and euthanasia regimens should be considered to achieve comparability, quality of animal experiments and animal welfare. These measures are of special interest when translating experimental findings to future clinical applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus