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Effects of Reducing Antimicrobial Use and Applying a Cleaning and Disinfection Program in Veal Calf Farming: Experiences from an Intervention Study to Control Livestock-Associated MRSA.

Dorado-García A, Graveland H, Bos ME, Verstappen KM, Van Cleef BA, Kluytmans JA, Wagenaar JA, Heederik DJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms.Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C)) was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters.These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
With the ultimate aim of containing the emergence of resistant bacteria, a Dutch policy was set in place in 2010 promoting a reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU) in food-producing animals. In this context, a study evaluated strategies to curb livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Fifty-one veal calf farms were assigned to one of 3 study arms: RAB farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; and Control farms without interventions. MRSA carriage was tested in week 0 and week 12 of 2 consecutive production cycles in farmers, family members and veal calves. Interventions were validated and a cyclic rise in MRSA-prevalence in animals was shown with a more moderate increase in RAB farms. Prevalence in humans declined parallel over time in the study arms but RAB farms were at the lowest MRSA levels from the beginning of the study. In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms. Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C)) was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters. AMU was positively associated with MRSA across study arms (ORs per 10 DDDA/C increase = 1.26 for both humans (p = 0.07) and animals (p = 0.12 in first cycle)). These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective. The drop in MRSA prevalence in people during the study could be attributed to the observed long-term AMU decreasing trend.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean MRSA prevalence and 95% confidence interval in veal calves from 51 farms during an intervention study to reduce MRSA carriage, the Netherlands 2010–2012.Prevalence is estimated using pooled samples in the first production cycle and individual samples in the second cycle. RAB, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; Control, farms without interventions; MRSA, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
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pone.0135826.g002: Mean MRSA prevalence and 95% confidence interval in veal calves from 51 farms during an intervention study to reduce MRSA carriage, the Netherlands 2010–2012.Prevalence is estimated using pooled samples in the first production cycle and individual samples in the second cycle. RAB, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; Control, farms without interventions; MRSA, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Mentions: The MRSA prevalence considerably increased from the entrance of animals in the farm to week 12 (Fig 2) and this pattern was reproduced in both study cycles. The rise in prevalence over time was significantly flattened in RAB farms as compared to Control farms while RAB-CD farms showed an intermediate trend. Mixed models including study arm and sampling moment showed no significant differences between study arms at baseline in each of the cycles. However, the likelihood of an MRSA-positive sample (expressed as Odds Ratio (OR)) was 2 to 3 times higher in Control and RAB-CD farms than in RAB farms in week 12 of both cycles (Table 2). Overall, MRSA prevalence was lower in the second production cycle. This is at least partially explained by the different sampling strategy (pooled samples in the first cycle versus individual samples in the second cycle) but can also be the result of the observed AMU reduction.


Effects of Reducing Antimicrobial Use and Applying a Cleaning and Disinfection Program in Veal Calf Farming: Experiences from an Intervention Study to Control Livestock-Associated MRSA.

Dorado-García A, Graveland H, Bos ME, Verstappen KM, Van Cleef BA, Kluytmans JA, Wagenaar JA, Heederik DJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean MRSA prevalence and 95% confidence interval in veal calves from 51 farms during an intervention study to reduce MRSA carriage, the Netherlands 2010–2012.Prevalence is estimated using pooled samples in the first production cycle and individual samples in the second cycle. RAB, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; Control, farms without interventions; MRSA, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549302&req=5

pone.0135826.g002: Mean MRSA prevalence and 95% confidence interval in veal calves from 51 farms during an intervention study to reduce MRSA carriage, the Netherlands 2010–2012.Prevalence is estimated using pooled samples in the first production cycle and individual samples in the second cycle. RAB, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD, farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; Control, farms without interventions; MRSA, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Mentions: The MRSA prevalence considerably increased from the entrance of animals in the farm to week 12 (Fig 2) and this pattern was reproduced in both study cycles. The rise in prevalence over time was significantly flattened in RAB farms as compared to Control farms while RAB-CD farms showed an intermediate trend. Mixed models including study arm and sampling moment showed no significant differences between study arms at baseline in each of the cycles. However, the likelihood of an MRSA-positive sample (expressed as Odds Ratio (OR)) was 2 to 3 times higher in Control and RAB-CD farms than in RAB farms in week 12 of both cycles (Table 2). Overall, MRSA prevalence was lower in the second production cycle. This is at least partially explained by the different sampling strategy (pooled samples in the first cycle versus individual samples in the second cycle) but can also be the result of the observed AMU reduction.

Bottom Line: In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms.Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C)) was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters.These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
With the ultimate aim of containing the emergence of resistant bacteria, a Dutch policy was set in place in 2010 promoting a reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU) in food-producing animals. In this context, a study evaluated strategies to curb livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Fifty-one veal calf farms were assigned to one of 3 study arms: RAB farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol; RAB-CD farms reducing antimicrobials by protocol and applying a cleaning and disinfection program; and Control farms without interventions. MRSA carriage was tested in week 0 and week 12 of 2 consecutive production cycles in farmers, family members and veal calves. Interventions were validated and a cyclic rise in MRSA-prevalence in animals was shown with a more moderate increase in RAB farms. Prevalence in humans declined parallel over time in the study arms but RAB farms were at the lowest MRSA levels from the beginning of the study. In RAB-CD farms, human and animal prevalence did not differ from Control farms and MRSA air loads were significantly higher than in the other study arms. Mimicking the national trend, an overall AMU decrease (daily dosages per animal per cycle (DDDA/C)) was observed over 4 pre-study and the 2 study cycles; this trend did not have a significant effect on a set of evaluated farm technical parameters. AMU was positively associated with MRSA across study arms (ORs per 10 DDDA/C increase = 1.26 for both humans (p = 0.07) and animals (p = 0.12 in first cycle)). These results suggest that AMU reduction might be a good strategy for curbing MRSA in veal calf farming, however the specific cleaning and disinfecting program in RAB-CD farms was not effective. The drop in MRSA prevalence in people during the study could be attributed to the observed long-term AMU decreasing trend.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus