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Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

Vijay A, Inui T, Dodds M, Proctor G, Carpenter G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations.However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation.Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King's College London Dental Institute, Salivary Research Unit, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cryo-Scanning electron micrograph images of unstimulated SMSL and parotid saliva.(a) section of unstimulated SMSL saliva showing the appearance of a filamentous mucin network; (b) section of parotid saliva showing a continuous matrix with the absence of a filamentous mucin network (Scale bar = 5μm).
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pone.0135792.g003: Cryo-Scanning electron micrograph images of unstimulated SMSL and parotid saliva.(a) section of unstimulated SMSL saliva showing the appearance of a filamentous mucin network; (b) section of parotid saliva showing a continuous matrix with the absence of a filamentous mucin network (Scale bar = 5μm).

Mentions: The condensed network of mucin chains as shown in Fig 3, is considered to be due to crosslinking of calcium ions [27–29]. Chelating or removing these calcium ions would result in rapid swelling, hydration, and dispersion of mucin networks [30,31]. Bicarbonate ions are believed to act as a chelator of calcium ions and not only chelate free calcium ions but also mucus bound calcium ions [32]. This could explain the trend in the decrease in concentrations of total calcium shown in the present study. The complex formed between mucin subunits and non-mucin species in saliva result in the formation of an elaborate suprastructure that may be stabilised by both covalent and non covalent forces [33].


Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

Vijay A, Inui T, Dodds M, Proctor G, Carpenter G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cryo-Scanning electron micrograph images of unstimulated SMSL and parotid saliva.(a) section of unstimulated SMSL saliva showing the appearance of a filamentous mucin network; (b) section of parotid saliva showing a continuous matrix with the absence of a filamentous mucin network (Scale bar = 5μm).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549258&req=5

pone.0135792.g003: Cryo-Scanning electron micrograph images of unstimulated SMSL and parotid saliva.(a) section of unstimulated SMSL saliva showing the appearance of a filamentous mucin network; (b) section of parotid saliva showing a continuous matrix with the absence of a filamentous mucin network (Scale bar = 5μm).
Mentions: The condensed network of mucin chains as shown in Fig 3, is considered to be due to crosslinking of calcium ions [27–29]. Chelating or removing these calcium ions would result in rapid swelling, hydration, and dispersion of mucin networks [30,31]. Bicarbonate ions are believed to act as a chelator of calcium ions and not only chelate free calcium ions but also mucus bound calcium ions [32]. This could explain the trend in the decrease in concentrations of total calcium shown in the present study. The complex formed between mucin subunits and non-mucin species in saliva result in the formation of an elaborate suprastructure that may be stabilised by both covalent and non covalent forces [33].

Bottom Line: The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations.However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation.Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King's College London Dental Institute, Salivary Research Unit, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus