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Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Influence of Degree of Deacetylation on Its Physiochemical, Material and Biological Properties.

Foster LJ, Ho S, Hook J, Basuki M, Marçal H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth.NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples.Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for biomaterial research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bio/Polymer Research Group, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Chitosan is a biomaterial with a range of current and potential biomedical applications. Manipulation of chitosan degree of deacetylation (DDA) to achieve specific properties appears feasible, but studies investigating its influence on properties are often contradictory. With a view to the potential of chitosan in the regeneration of nerve tissue, the influence of DDA on the growth and health of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) was investigated. There was a linear increase in OEC proliferation as the DDA increased from 72 to 85%. This correlated with linear increases in average surface roughness (0.62 to 0.78 μm) and crystallinity (4.3 to 10.1%) of the chitosan films. Mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of OECs was significantly different for OECs cultivated on chitosan with DDAs below 75%, while those on films with DDAs up to 85% were similar to cells in asynchronous growth. Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth. Tensile strength and elongation to break varied with DDA from 32.3 to 45.3 MPa and 3.6 to 7.1% respectively. DDA had no significant influence on abiotic and biotic degradation profiles of the chitosan films which showed approximately 8 and 20% weight loss respectively. Finally, perceived patterns in property changes are subject to change based on potential variations in DDA analysis. NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples. Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for biomaterial research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Variation in mechanical properties of solvent cast films fabricated from commercial chitosan samples with different DDAs, as measured by (a) tensile strength (MPa) and (b) elongation at break (%), (*Significant difference, P < 0.05, n = ≥ 10).
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pone.0135153.g004: Variation in mechanical properties of solvent cast films fabricated from commercial chitosan samples with different DDAs, as measured by (a) tensile strength (MPa) and (b) elongation at break (%), (*Significant difference, P < 0.05, n = ≥ 10).

Mentions: Crystallinity is known to influence tensile strength and there were significant differences in the mechanical properties of chitosan films fabricated through solvent casting from acetic acid. Increasing the DDA from 72 to 75% was accompanied by a significant reduction in tensile strength from 45.3 ± 3.1 to 32.3 ± 3.6 MPa. This initial decrease in tensile strength for was also matched by decreases in their elongation to break; films with a DDA of 72% possessed an elongation at break of 5.9 ± 0.4% which decreased to 3.6 ± 0.4% for films fabricated from chitosan with a DDA of 75%. However, chitosan films with DDAs 75 to 85% showed no significant differences in tensile strength but showed a gradual increase in elongation at break, such that films prepared from chitosan with a DDA of 85% showed an elongation at break of 7.1 ± 0.6% (Fig 4). At relatively low DDAs these results are consistent with Chatelet et al. who reported an increase in brittleness as the DDA increased [5]. At higher DDAs the mechanical performance was more consistent with that of Wenling et al. who correlated the inverse relationship between chitosan swelling and mechanical strength, as swelling increases, the mechanical strength decreases [11].


Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Influence of Degree of Deacetylation on Its Physiochemical, Material and Biological Properties.

Foster LJ, Ho S, Hook J, Basuki M, Marçal H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Variation in mechanical properties of solvent cast films fabricated from commercial chitosan samples with different DDAs, as measured by (a) tensile strength (MPa) and (b) elongation at break (%), (*Significant difference, P < 0.05, n = ≥ 10).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549144&req=5

pone.0135153.g004: Variation in mechanical properties of solvent cast films fabricated from commercial chitosan samples with different DDAs, as measured by (a) tensile strength (MPa) and (b) elongation at break (%), (*Significant difference, P < 0.05, n = ≥ 10).
Mentions: Crystallinity is known to influence tensile strength and there were significant differences in the mechanical properties of chitosan films fabricated through solvent casting from acetic acid. Increasing the DDA from 72 to 75% was accompanied by a significant reduction in tensile strength from 45.3 ± 3.1 to 32.3 ± 3.6 MPa. This initial decrease in tensile strength for was also matched by decreases in their elongation to break; films with a DDA of 72% possessed an elongation at break of 5.9 ± 0.4% which decreased to 3.6 ± 0.4% for films fabricated from chitosan with a DDA of 75%. However, chitosan films with DDAs 75 to 85% showed no significant differences in tensile strength but showed a gradual increase in elongation at break, such that films prepared from chitosan with a DDA of 85% showed an elongation at break of 7.1 ± 0.6% (Fig 4). At relatively low DDAs these results are consistent with Chatelet et al. who reported an increase in brittleness as the DDA increased [5]. At higher DDAs the mechanical performance was more consistent with that of Wenling et al. who correlated the inverse relationship between chitosan swelling and mechanical strength, as swelling increases, the mechanical strength decreases [11].

Bottom Line: Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth.NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples.Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for biomaterial research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bio/Polymer Research Group, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Chitosan is a biomaterial with a range of current and potential biomedical applications. Manipulation of chitosan degree of deacetylation (DDA) to achieve specific properties appears feasible, but studies investigating its influence on properties are often contradictory. With a view to the potential of chitosan in the regeneration of nerve tissue, the influence of DDA on the growth and health of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) was investigated. There was a linear increase in OEC proliferation as the DDA increased from 72 to 85%. This correlated with linear increases in average surface roughness (0.62 to 0.78 μm) and crystallinity (4.3 to 10.1%) of the chitosan films. Mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of OECs was significantly different for OECs cultivated on chitosan with DDAs below 75%, while those on films with DDAs up to 85% were similar to cells in asynchronous growth. Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth. Tensile strength and elongation to break varied with DDA from 32.3 to 45.3 MPa and 3.6 to 7.1% respectively. DDA had no significant influence on abiotic and biotic degradation profiles of the chitosan films which showed approximately 8 and 20% weight loss respectively. Finally, perceived patterns in property changes are subject to change based on potential variations in DDA analysis. NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples. Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for biomaterial research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus