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Adult stem cells and tissue engineering strategies for salivary gland regeneration: a review.

Yoo C, Vines JB, Alexander G, Murdock K, Hwang P, Jun HW - Biomater Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Hyposalivation (dry mouth syndrome) is a deleterious condition often resulting from radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer, Sjogren's Syndrome, or as a side effect of certain medications.Hyposalivation negatively affects speaking, mastication, and swallowing in afflicted patients, greatly reducing their quality of life.However, many of these treatments do not address the underlying issues and others are pervaded by numerous side effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Shelby Building 806, 1825 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA ; Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 59 Yatap-ro, Gyeonggi-do, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, 463-712 South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Saliva is an important compound produced by the salivary glands and performs numerous functions. Hyposalivation (dry mouth syndrome) is a deleterious condition often resulting from radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer, Sjogren's Syndrome, or as a side effect of certain medications. Hyposalivation negatively affects speaking, mastication, and swallowing in afflicted patients, greatly reducing their quality of life. Current treatments for this pathology include modifying lifestyle, synthetic saliva supplementation, and the utilization of salivary gland stimulants and sialagogues. However, many of these treatments do not address the underlying issues and others are pervaded by numerous side effects. In order to address the shortcomings related to current treatment modalities, many groups have diverted their attention to utilizing tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. Tissue engineering is defined as the application of life sciences and materials engineering toward the development of tissue substitutes that are capable of mimicking the structure and function of their natural analogues within the body. The general underlying strategy behind the development of tissue engineered organ substitutes is the utilization of a combination of cells, biomaterials, and biochemical cues intended to recreate the natural organ environment. The purpose of this review is to highlight current bioengineering approaches for salivary gland tissue engineering and the adult stem cell sources used for this purpose. Additionally, future considerations in regard to salivary gland tissue engineering strategies are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Differentiation of salisphere into acinar cells. (A) Amylase expressing cells (AC) in submandibular gland tissue (Tissue) were also present at the onset of culture (A-D0), and were visualized in the sphere at the onset of day 5 (A-D5), whereas granulae-containing spheres appeared in culture at later time-points (A-D10). Antibody labeling is shown in brown, nuclei in blue. Scale bar = 50 mm. (D = duct cells, AC = acinar cells, D0–3– 5–10 represent days in culture). (B) Real time RT-PCR confirmed the enhanced expression of amylase during in vitro culturing and differentiation. Error bars represent SEM (N = 2). Amylase mRNA expression levels at 2 days of culture were normalized to one. Reproduced with permission from: [28].
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Fig2: Differentiation of salisphere into acinar cells. (A) Amylase expressing cells (AC) in submandibular gland tissue (Tissue) were also present at the onset of culture (A-D0), and were visualized in the sphere at the onset of day 5 (A-D5), whereas granulae-containing spheres appeared in culture at later time-points (A-D10). Antibody labeling is shown in brown, nuclei in blue. Scale bar = 50 mm. (D = duct cells, AC = acinar cells, D0–3– 5–10 represent days in culture). (B) Real time RT-PCR confirmed the enhanced expression of amylase during in vitro culturing and differentiation. Error bars represent SEM (N = 2). Amylase mRNA expression levels at 2 days of culture were normalized to one. Reproduced with permission from: [28].

Mentions: By using a floating sphere culture, further in vitro characterization of submandibular-derived SGSCs revealed cellular expression of Sca-1, c-Kit, and Musahsi-1 [28]. Immunohistochemical staining over a 10 day period was performed to analyze the origination and development of cell spheres. Initial H&E, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), CK7, and CK14 staining showed that cultured spheres contained acinar and ductal cells. Interestingly, acinar cells mostly disappeared by the third day but reappeared within the existing ductal spheres by the fifth day in culture. By day ten, acinar cells dominated sphere composition and amylase expression, quantified using RT-PCR, increased almost 25-fold after 20 days (Figure 2).Figure 2


Adult stem cells and tissue engineering strategies for salivary gland regeneration: a review.

Yoo C, Vines JB, Alexander G, Murdock K, Hwang P, Jun HW - Biomater Res (2014)

Differentiation of salisphere into acinar cells. (A) Amylase expressing cells (AC) in submandibular gland tissue (Tissue) were also present at the onset of culture (A-D0), and were visualized in the sphere at the onset of day 5 (A-D5), whereas granulae-containing spheres appeared in culture at later time-points (A-D10). Antibody labeling is shown in brown, nuclei in blue. Scale bar = 50 mm. (D = duct cells, AC = acinar cells, D0–3– 5–10 represent days in culture). (B) Real time RT-PCR confirmed the enhanced expression of amylase during in vitro culturing and differentiation. Error bars represent SEM (N = 2). Amylase mRNA expression levels at 2 days of culture were normalized to one. Reproduced with permission from: [28].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549133&req=5

Fig2: Differentiation of salisphere into acinar cells. (A) Amylase expressing cells (AC) in submandibular gland tissue (Tissue) were also present at the onset of culture (A-D0), and were visualized in the sphere at the onset of day 5 (A-D5), whereas granulae-containing spheres appeared in culture at later time-points (A-D10). Antibody labeling is shown in brown, nuclei in blue. Scale bar = 50 mm. (D = duct cells, AC = acinar cells, D0–3– 5–10 represent days in culture). (B) Real time RT-PCR confirmed the enhanced expression of amylase during in vitro culturing and differentiation. Error bars represent SEM (N = 2). Amylase mRNA expression levels at 2 days of culture were normalized to one. Reproduced with permission from: [28].
Mentions: By using a floating sphere culture, further in vitro characterization of submandibular-derived SGSCs revealed cellular expression of Sca-1, c-Kit, and Musahsi-1 [28]. Immunohistochemical staining over a 10 day period was performed to analyze the origination and development of cell spheres. Initial H&E, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), CK7, and CK14 staining showed that cultured spheres contained acinar and ductal cells. Interestingly, acinar cells mostly disappeared by the third day but reappeared within the existing ductal spheres by the fifth day in culture. By day ten, acinar cells dominated sphere composition and amylase expression, quantified using RT-PCR, increased almost 25-fold after 20 days (Figure 2).Figure 2

Bottom Line: Hyposalivation (dry mouth syndrome) is a deleterious condition often resulting from radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer, Sjogren's Syndrome, or as a side effect of certain medications.Hyposalivation negatively affects speaking, mastication, and swallowing in afflicted patients, greatly reducing their quality of life.However, many of these treatments do not address the underlying issues and others are pervaded by numerous side effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Shelby Building 806, 1825 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA ; Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 59 Yatap-ro, Gyeonggi-do, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, 463-712 South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Saliva is an important compound produced by the salivary glands and performs numerous functions. Hyposalivation (dry mouth syndrome) is a deleterious condition often resulting from radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer, Sjogren's Syndrome, or as a side effect of certain medications. Hyposalivation negatively affects speaking, mastication, and swallowing in afflicted patients, greatly reducing their quality of life. Current treatments for this pathology include modifying lifestyle, synthetic saliva supplementation, and the utilization of salivary gland stimulants and sialagogues. However, many of these treatments do not address the underlying issues and others are pervaded by numerous side effects. In order to address the shortcomings related to current treatment modalities, many groups have diverted their attention to utilizing tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. Tissue engineering is defined as the application of life sciences and materials engineering toward the development of tissue substitutes that are capable of mimicking the structure and function of their natural analogues within the body. The general underlying strategy behind the development of tissue engineered organ substitutes is the utilization of a combination of cells, biomaterials, and biochemical cues intended to recreate the natural organ environment. The purpose of this review is to highlight current bioengineering approaches for salivary gland tissue engineering and the adult stem cell sources used for this purpose. Additionally, future considerations in regard to salivary gland tissue engineering strategies are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus