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A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Curve-fitting proposed theoretical results to the empirical data in Pedersen [27] (Figure 14), Pedersen [28] (Figure 5), Kloch [29] (Figure 6), and Pedersen [27] (Figure 10), shown in (a), (b), (c) and (d), respectively.
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pone.0132555.g013: Curve-fitting proposed theoretical results to the empirical data in Pedersen [27] (Figure 14), Pedersen [28] (Figure 5), Kloch [29] (Figure 6), and Pedersen [27] (Figure 10), shown in (a), (b), (c) and (d), respectively.

Mentions: A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with empirical data sets and performed simulation results is presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model. The obtained theoretical results for azimuth AoA observed at the BS are compared with the empirical data-sets obtained for different outdoor propagation environments given in Pedersen ([27], Figure 14), Pedersen ([28], Figure 5), Kloch ([29], Figure 6), and Pedersen ([27], Figure 10), shown in Fig 13(a), 13(b), 13(c) and 13(d), respectively. The geometric parameter substitutions taken for this comparison are shown in Table 2, where, the observed goodness-of-fit (i.e., LSE) is also demonstrated. The LSE of the compared analytical results is observed to be 0.0015, 0.0196, 0.022, and 0.0646 for the empirical data-sets in ([27], Figure 10), ([27], Figure 14), Pedersen ([28], Figure 5), and Kloch ([29], Figure 6), respectively. This good fit of proposed analytical results on the empirical data-sets establishes the validity of the proposed analytical results for AoA seen at BS. Due to unavailability (for the proposed particular scenario) of the empirical data sets for ToA and elevation AoA, the obtained analytical results for ToA and elevation AoA seen at BS and MS are validated through comparison with performed simulation results, as shown in Figs 14 and 15. In the performed computer simulations, the scattering points are generated in the defined SR, taken from uniform distribution, as shown in Figs 14(a) and 15(a). The simulated results for marginal PDFs of azimuth AoA, elevation AoA, and ToA observed at BS are compared with the proposed analytical results in Fig 14(b), 14(c), and 14(d), respectively. Similarly, the simulation and analytical results for spatiotemporal statistics seen at MS are shown in Fig 15(b), 15(c), and 15(d). For 107 uniformly distributed scattering points, a good match is observed between simulation and analytical results, which establishes the validity of derived analytical expressions.


A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Curve-fitting proposed theoretical results to the empirical data in Pedersen [27] (Figure 14), Pedersen [28] (Figure 5), Kloch [29] (Figure 6), and Pedersen [27] (Figure 10), shown in (a), (b), (c) and (d), respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549116&req=5

pone.0132555.g013: Curve-fitting proposed theoretical results to the empirical data in Pedersen [27] (Figure 14), Pedersen [28] (Figure 5), Kloch [29] (Figure 6), and Pedersen [27] (Figure 10), shown in (a), (b), (c) and (d), respectively.
Mentions: A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with empirical data sets and performed simulation results is presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model. The obtained theoretical results for azimuth AoA observed at the BS are compared with the empirical data-sets obtained for different outdoor propagation environments given in Pedersen ([27], Figure 14), Pedersen ([28], Figure 5), Kloch ([29], Figure 6), and Pedersen ([27], Figure 10), shown in Fig 13(a), 13(b), 13(c) and 13(d), respectively. The geometric parameter substitutions taken for this comparison are shown in Table 2, where, the observed goodness-of-fit (i.e., LSE) is also demonstrated. The LSE of the compared analytical results is observed to be 0.0015, 0.0196, 0.022, and 0.0646 for the empirical data-sets in ([27], Figure 10), ([27], Figure 14), Pedersen ([28], Figure 5), and Kloch ([29], Figure 6), respectively. This good fit of proposed analytical results on the empirical data-sets establishes the validity of the proposed analytical results for AoA seen at BS. Due to unavailability (for the proposed particular scenario) of the empirical data sets for ToA and elevation AoA, the obtained analytical results for ToA and elevation AoA seen at BS and MS are validated through comparison with performed simulation results, as shown in Figs 14 and 15. In the performed computer simulations, the scattering points are generated in the defined SR, taken from uniform distribution, as shown in Figs 14(a) and 15(a). The simulated results for marginal PDFs of azimuth AoA, elevation AoA, and ToA observed at BS are compared with the proposed analytical results in Fig 14(b), 14(c), and 14(d), respectively. Similarly, the simulation and analytical results for spatiotemporal statistics seen at MS are shown in Fig 15(b), 15(c), and 15(d). For 107 uniformly distributed scattering points, a good match is observed between simulation and analytical results, which establishes the validity of derived analytical expressions.

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

No MeSH data available.