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A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

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Effect of ratio of co to hb on azimuth and elevation marginal PDF of AoA observed from BS.(ao = 120m, bo = 70m, ai = 40m, bi = 20m, θi = θo = 0o, and d = 130m).
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pone.0132555.g008: Effect of ratio of co to hb on azimuth and elevation marginal PDF of AoA observed from BS.(ao = 120m, bo = 70m, ai = 40m, bi = 20m, θi = θo = 0o, and d = 130m).

Mentions: The joint PDF of AoA in correspondence with azimuth and elevation angles observed at BS is plotted in Fig 7, for different values taken for the magnitude of the hollow region (i.e. ai and bi). In future land mobile radio cellular communication networks, the cell size and the elevation of BS is expected to decrease [4]. In order to gauge the impact of elevation of the BS on the angular characteristics of the communication channel, the marginal PDF of AoA in azimuth and elevation planes is shown in Fig 8(a) and 8(b), respectively. Reducing the elevation of BS leads to a significant increase in the elevational angular spread, which accentuates the significance of considering the elevation plane for appropriate modeling. Effect of rotation of hollow elliptical-cylindric region on azimuth and elevation marginal PDFs of AoA seen at BS is shown in Fig 9(a) and 9(b), respectively.


A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of ratio of co to hb on azimuth and elevation marginal PDF of AoA observed from BS.(ao = 120m, bo = 70m, ai = 40m, bi = 20m, θi = θo = 0o, and d = 130m).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549116&req=5

pone.0132555.g008: Effect of ratio of co to hb on azimuth and elevation marginal PDF of AoA observed from BS.(ao = 120m, bo = 70m, ai = 40m, bi = 20m, θi = θo = 0o, and d = 130m).
Mentions: The joint PDF of AoA in correspondence with azimuth and elevation angles observed at BS is plotted in Fig 7, for different values taken for the magnitude of the hollow region (i.e. ai and bi). In future land mobile radio cellular communication networks, the cell size and the elevation of BS is expected to decrease [4]. In order to gauge the impact of elevation of the BS on the angular characteristics of the communication channel, the marginal PDF of AoA in azimuth and elevation planes is shown in Fig 8(a) and 8(b), respectively. Reducing the elevation of BS leads to a significant increase in the elevational angular spread, which accentuates the significance of considering the elevation plane for appropriate modeling. Effect of rotation of hollow elliptical-cylindric region on azimuth and elevation marginal PDFs of AoA seen at BS is shown in Fig 9(a) and 9(b), respectively.

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus