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A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of θi (a) and θo (b) on marginal PDFs of azimuth AoA observed from MS.(ao = 100m, bo = 60m, co = 50m, ai = 30m, and bi = 15m).
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pone.0132555.g006: Effect of θi (a) and θo (b) on marginal PDFs of azimuth AoA observed from MS.(ao = 100m, bo = 60m, co = 50m, ai = 30m, and bi = 15m).

Mentions: The joint PDF of AoA observed at MS is plotted in Fig 4, for different magnitudes of inner bounding elliptical-cylinder. It is evident that the introduction of inner cylinder decreases the angular span of elevation AoA. In order to elaborate the impact of the magnitude of SR in the azimuth plane on the PDF of azimuth AoA, the plots in Fig 5(a) are shown for different ratios between ao and bo by keeping the magnitude of hollow cylindrical region constant. It can be observed that the PDF approaches to uniform distribution, (the proposed model deduces to the Clarke’s model [26]), as the ratio between ao and bo approaches to 1. Furthermore, in order to show the impact of scattering objects in the elevation plane on the PDF of elevation AoA, the plots in Fig 5(b) are shown for different values of co. It can be observed that the angular spread in elevation plane significantly increases with an increase in co. This indicates the importance of inclusion of scatterers in elevation plane into the account for modeling the SR. The SR in the proposed model is designed as rotatable in horizontal plane around the MS to adapt various orientations of practical propagation environments; therefore, the impact of rotation of inner and outer bounding region on the PDF of azimuth AoA observing from MS has been plotted in Fig 6. It can be seen that the maximum value of PDF along LoS direction steers in azimuth axis with a certain angle by changing rotation parameters θi and θo.


A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of θi (a) and θo (b) on marginal PDFs of azimuth AoA observed from MS.(ao = 100m, bo = 60m, co = 50m, ai = 30m, and bi = 15m).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549116&req=5

pone.0132555.g006: Effect of θi (a) and θo (b) on marginal PDFs of azimuth AoA observed from MS.(ao = 100m, bo = 60m, co = 50m, ai = 30m, and bi = 15m).
Mentions: The joint PDF of AoA observed at MS is plotted in Fig 4, for different magnitudes of inner bounding elliptical-cylinder. It is evident that the introduction of inner cylinder decreases the angular span of elevation AoA. In order to elaborate the impact of the magnitude of SR in the azimuth plane on the PDF of azimuth AoA, the plots in Fig 5(a) are shown for different ratios between ao and bo by keeping the magnitude of hollow cylindrical region constant. It can be observed that the PDF approaches to uniform distribution, (the proposed model deduces to the Clarke’s model [26]), as the ratio between ao and bo approaches to 1. Furthermore, in order to show the impact of scattering objects in the elevation plane on the PDF of elevation AoA, the plots in Fig 5(b) are shown for different values of co. It can be observed that the angular spread in elevation plane significantly increases with an increase in co. This indicates the importance of inclusion of scatterers in elevation plane into the account for modeling the SR. The SR in the proposed model is designed as rotatable in horizontal plane around the MS to adapt various orientations of practical propagation environments; therefore, the impact of rotation of inner and outer bounding region on the PDF of azimuth AoA observing from MS has been plotted in Fig 6. It can be seen that the maximum value of PDF along LoS direction steers in azimuth axis with a certain angle by changing rotation parameters θi and θo.

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus