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A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Proposed 3-D scattering model for outdoor radio cellular propagation environments.
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pone.0132555.g001: Proposed 3-D scattering model for outdoor radio cellular propagation environments.

Mentions: In this section, the proposed 3-D ellipsoidal model is presented. Uniformly distributed scattering objects around the MS are bounded in an ellipsoid and elliptical-cylinder, as shown in Fig 1. The BS is assumed at an height hb and at a distance d from the MS. The outer bounding ellipsoid is designed as independently scalable along its major, intermediate, and minor axes with parameters ao, bo, and co, respectively. In outdoor radio propagation environments, the multipath waves from the elevation plane do not often arrive at MS from the directions exactly perpendicular to the ground plane. To ensure appropriate modeling of SR, the immediately adjacent region around MS is designed as scattering free by modeling the geometry of this hollow region with an adjustable elliptical-cylinder. Height of the cylinder hc is fixed to be greater than co, such that it eliminates all the scattering objects elevated exactly above the MS. The spread of multipath waves in elevation plane depends on the vertical structures in the vicinity of MS; therefore, to adapt a certain propagation environment, the inner bounding elliptical-cylinder is modeled as scalable along its major and minor axes with parameters ai and bi, respectively. Both the outer and inner bounding geometric shapes of SR are designed as rotatable around MS in x-y plane (with parameters, θo and θi) to appropriately model various orientations of effective SR (e.g., modeling street orientations). Therefore, the proposed model provides nine degrees of freedom (i.e., ao, bo, co, θo, ai, bi, θi, d, and hb) to ensure the degree of expected accuracy. The linear distance of a certain scattering point (sp) from MS and BS is shown by rm and rb, respectively. The azimuth and elevation angle of arriving multipath wave at the BS corresponded from a certain scattering point is represented by ϕb and βb, respectively. The azimuth and elevation angles seen at MS are shown by ϕm and βm, respectively. Some common assumptions (as in [9–11]) taken to design the proposed model are given below,


A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

Ahmed A, Nawaz SJ, Gulfam SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Proposed 3-D scattering model for outdoor radio cellular propagation environments.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549116&req=5

pone.0132555.g001: Proposed 3-D scattering model for outdoor radio cellular propagation environments.
Mentions: In this section, the proposed 3-D ellipsoidal model is presented. Uniformly distributed scattering objects around the MS are bounded in an ellipsoid and elliptical-cylinder, as shown in Fig 1. The BS is assumed at an height hb and at a distance d from the MS. The outer bounding ellipsoid is designed as independently scalable along its major, intermediate, and minor axes with parameters ao, bo, and co, respectively. In outdoor radio propagation environments, the multipath waves from the elevation plane do not often arrive at MS from the directions exactly perpendicular to the ground plane. To ensure appropriate modeling of SR, the immediately adjacent region around MS is designed as scattering free by modeling the geometry of this hollow region with an adjustable elliptical-cylinder. Height of the cylinder hc is fixed to be greater than co, such that it eliminates all the scattering objects elevated exactly above the MS. The spread of multipath waves in elevation plane depends on the vertical structures in the vicinity of MS; therefore, to adapt a certain propagation environment, the inner bounding elliptical-cylinder is modeled as scalable along its major and minor axes with parameters ai and bi, respectively. Both the outer and inner bounding geometric shapes of SR are designed as rotatable around MS in x-y plane (with parameters, θo and θi) to appropriately model various orientations of effective SR (e.g., modeling street orientations). Therefore, the proposed model provides nine degrees of freedom (i.e., ao, bo, co, θo, ai, bi, θi, d, and hb) to ensure the degree of expected accuracy. The linear distance of a certain scattering point (sp) from MS and BS is shown by rm and rb, respectively. The azimuth and elevation angle of arriving multipath wave at the BS corresponded from a certain scattering point is represented by ϕb and βb, respectively. The azimuth and elevation angles seen at MS are shown by ϕm and βm, respectively. Some common assumptions (as in [9–11]) taken to design the proposed model are given below,

Bottom Line: The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results.The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments.In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to various notable geometric models in the literature by an appropriate choice of a few parameters.

No MeSH data available.