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Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

Mirelman A, Bernad-Elazari H, Nobel T, Thaler A, Peruzzi A, Plotnik M, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years).Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04).Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for the study of Movement, Cognition and Mobility, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1) comfortable speed, 2) walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task), 3) walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years). As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03) and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02). Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04). In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001). Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004), but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67). Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02), axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02) and axial jerk (p<0.001). Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatter plots of the effects of age are presented for amplitude of the dominant hand (deg) and axial jerk (m/s3).
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pone.0136043.g001: Scatter plots of the effects of age are presented for amplitude of the dominant hand (deg) and axial jerk (m/s3).

Mentions: Axial rotation amplitude significantly decreased with age (F = 3.31, p = 0.02). Trunk amplitude was significantly lower in the oldest group in all conditions compared to the other groups (F = 18.1, p<0.001). Similarly, axial jerk was significantly lower in the older groups (F = 5.78, p = 0.001). An interaction effect was observed (F = 2.05, p = 0.05) with the two older groups demonstrating an increase in axial rotation jerk in the challenging conditions, as compared to the usual walking conditions while the two younger groups demonstrated a decrease in axial jerk during the DT condition (see Table 2 and see Fig 1).


Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

Mirelman A, Bernad-Elazari H, Nobel T, Thaler A, Peruzzi A, Plotnik M, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Scatter plots of the effects of age are presented for amplitude of the dominant hand (deg) and axial jerk (m/s3).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4549059&req=5

pone.0136043.g001: Scatter plots of the effects of age are presented for amplitude of the dominant hand (deg) and axial jerk (m/s3).
Mentions: Axial rotation amplitude significantly decreased with age (F = 3.31, p = 0.02). Trunk amplitude was significantly lower in the oldest group in all conditions compared to the other groups (F = 18.1, p<0.001). Similarly, axial jerk was significantly lower in the older groups (F = 5.78, p = 0.001). An interaction effect was observed (F = 2.05, p = 0.05) with the two older groups demonstrating an increase in axial rotation jerk in the challenging conditions, as compared to the usual walking conditions while the two younger groups demonstrated a decrease in axial jerk during the DT condition (see Table 2 and see Fig 1).

Bottom Line: Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years).Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04).Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for the study of Movement, Cognition and Mobility, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1) comfortable speed, 2) walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task), 3) walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years). As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03) and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02). Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04). In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001). Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004), but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67). Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02), axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02) and axial jerk (p<0.001). Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus