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Visualizing genome and systems biology: technologies, tools, implementation techniques and trends, past, present and future.

Pavlopoulos GA, Malliarakis D, Papanikolaou N, Theodosiou T, Enright AJ, Iliopoulos I - Gigascience (2015)

Bottom Line: "Α picture is worth a thousand words." This widely used adage sums up in a few words the notion that a successful visual representation of a concept should enable easy and rapid absorption of large amounts of information.We briefly comment on many visualization and analysis tools and the purposes that they serve.We focus on the latest libraries and programming languages that enable more effective, efficient and faster approaches for visualizing biological concepts, and also comment on the future human-computer interaction trends that would enable for enhancing visualization further.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioinformatics & Computational Biology Laboratory, Division of Basic Sciences, University of Crete, Medical School, 70013 Heraklion, Crete Greece.

ABSTRACT
"Α picture is worth a thousand words." This widely used adage sums up in a few words the notion that a successful visual representation of a concept should enable easy and rapid absorption of large amounts of information. Although, in general, the notion of capturing complex ideas using images is very appealing, would 1000 words be enough to describe the unknown in a research field such as the life sciences? Life sciences is one of the biggest generators of enormous datasets, mainly as a result of recent and rapid technological advances; their complexity can make these datasets incomprehensible without effective visualization methods. Here we discuss the past, present and future of genomic and systems biology visualization. We briefly comment on many visualization and analysis tools and the purposes that they serve. We focus on the latest libraries and programming languages that enable more effective, efficient and faster approaches for visualizing biological concepts, and also comment on the future human-computer interaction trends that would enable for enhancing visualization further.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Visualization for network biology. a Timeline of the emergence of relevant technologies and concepts. b A simple drawing of an undirected unweighted graph. c A 2D representation of a yeast protein-protein interaction network visualized in Cytoscape (left) and potential protein complexes identified by the MCL algorithm from that network (right). d A 3D view of a protein-protein interaction network visualized by BiolayoutExpress3D. e A multilayered network integrating different types of data visualized by Arena3D. f A hive plot view of a network in which nodes are mapped to and positioned on radially distributed linear axes. g Visualization of network changes over time. h Part of lung cancer pathway visualized by iPath. i Remote navigation and control of networks by hand gestures. j Integration and control of 3D networks using VR devices
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Fig1: Visualization for network biology. a Timeline of the emergence of relevant technologies and concepts. b A simple drawing of an undirected unweighted graph. c A 2D representation of a yeast protein-protein interaction network visualized in Cytoscape (left) and potential protein complexes identified by the MCL algorithm from that network (right). d A 3D view of a protein-protein interaction network visualized by BiolayoutExpress3D. e A multilayered network integrating different types of data visualized by Arena3D. f A hive plot view of a network in which nodes are mapped to and positioned on radially distributed linear axes. g Visualization of network changes over time. h Part of lung cancer pathway visualized by iPath. i Remote navigation and control of networks by hand gestures. j Integration and control of 3D networks using VR devices

Mentions: In the field of systems biology, we often meet network representations in which bioentities are interconnected with each other. In such graphs, each node represents a bioentity and edges (connections) represent the associations between them [10]. These graphs can be weighted, unweighted, directed or undirected. Among the various networks types within the field, some of the most widely used are protein-protein interaction networks, literature-based co-occurrence networks, metabolic/biochemical, signal transduction, gene regulatory and gene co-expression networks [11–13]. As new technological advances and high-throughput techniques come to the forefront every few years, such networks can increase dramatically in size and complexity, and therefore more efficient algorithms for analysis and visualization are necessary. Notably, a network consisting of a hundred nodes and connections is incomprehensible and impossible for a human to visually analyze. For example, techniques such as tandem affinity purification (TAP) [14], yeast two hybrid (Y2H) [15] and mass spectrometry [16] can nowadays generate a significant fraction of the physical interactions of a proteome. As network biology evolves over time, we indicate standard procedures that were developed over the past 20 years and highlight key tools and methodologies that had a crucial role in this maturation process (Fig. 1).Fig. 1


Visualizing genome and systems biology: technologies, tools, implementation techniques and trends, past, present and future.

Pavlopoulos GA, Malliarakis D, Papanikolaou N, Theodosiou T, Enright AJ, Iliopoulos I - Gigascience (2015)

Visualization for network biology. a Timeline of the emergence of relevant technologies and concepts. b A simple drawing of an undirected unweighted graph. c A 2D representation of a yeast protein-protein interaction network visualized in Cytoscape (left) and potential protein complexes identified by the MCL algorithm from that network (right). d A 3D view of a protein-protein interaction network visualized by BiolayoutExpress3D. e A multilayered network integrating different types of data visualized by Arena3D. f A hive plot view of a network in which nodes are mapped to and positioned on radially distributed linear axes. g Visualization of network changes over time. h Part of lung cancer pathway visualized by iPath. i Remote navigation and control of networks by hand gestures. j Integration and control of 3D networks using VR devices
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4548842&req=5

Fig1: Visualization for network biology. a Timeline of the emergence of relevant technologies and concepts. b A simple drawing of an undirected unweighted graph. c A 2D representation of a yeast protein-protein interaction network visualized in Cytoscape (left) and potential protein complexes identified by the MCL algorithm from that network (right). d A 3D view of a protein-protein interaction network visualized by BiolayoutExpress3D. e A multilayered network integrating different types of data visualized by Arena3D. f A hive plot view of a network in which nodes are mapped to and positioned on radially distributed linear axes. g Visualization of network changes over time. h Part of lung cancer pathway visualized by iPath. i Remote navigation and control of networks by hand gestures. j Integration and control of 3D networks using VR devices
Mentions: In the field of systems biology, we often meet network representations in which bioentities are interconnected with each other. In such graphs, each node represents a bioentity and edges (connections) represent the associations between them [10]. These graphs can be weighted, unweighted, directed or undirected. Among the various networks types within the field, some of the most widely used are protein-protein interaction networks, literature-based co-occurrence networks, metabolic/biochemical, signal transduction, gene regulatory and gene co-expression networks [11–13]. As new technological advances and high-throughput techniques come to the forefront every few years, such networks can increase dramatically in size and complexity, and therefore more efficient algorithms for analysis and visualization are necessary. Notably, a network consisting of a hundred nodes and connections is incomprehensible and impossible for a human to visually analyze. For example, techniques such as tandem affinity purification (TAP) [14], yeast two hybrid (Y2H) [15] and mass spectrometry [16] can nowadays generate a significant fraction of the physical interactions of a proteome. As network biology evolves over time, we indicate standard procedures that were developed over the past 20 years and highlight key tools and methodologies that had a crucial role in this maturation process (Fig. 1).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: "Α picture is worth a thousand words." This widely used adage sums up in a few words the notion that a successful visual representation of a concept should enable easy and rapid absorption of large amounts of information.We briefly comment on many visualization and analysis tools and the purposes that they serve.We focus on the latest libraries and programming languages that enable more effective, efficient and faster approaches for visualizing biological concepts, and also comment on the future human-computer interaction trends that would enable for enhancing visualization further.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioinformatics & Computational Biology Laboratory, Division of Basic Sciences, University of Crete, Medical School, 70013 Heraklion, Crete Greece.

ABSTRACT
"Α picture is worth a thousand words." This widely used adage sums up in a few words the notion that a successful visual representation of a concept should enable easy and rapid absorption of large amounts of information. Although, in general, the notion of capturing complex ideas using images is very appealing, would 1000 words be enough to describe the unknown in a research field such as the life sciences? Life sciences is one of the biggest generators of enormous datasets, mainly as a result of recent and rapid technological advances; their complexity can make these datasets incomprehensible without effective visualization methods. Here we discuss the past, present and future of genomic and systems biology visualization. We briefly comment on many visualization and analysis tools and the purposes that they serve. We focus on the latest libraries and programming languages that enable more effective, efficient and faster approaches for visualizing biological concepts, and also comment on the future human-computer interaction trends that would enable for enhancing visualization further.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus