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Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress.

Jin CH, Paik IY, Kwak YS, Jee YS, Kim JY - J Exerc Rehabil (2015)

Bottom Line: Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles.In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors.This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Leisure and Gaming, Hanseo University, Seosan, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio).

Materials and methods: Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Physiological changes in the exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. (A) Heart rate at rest and after the exhaustive submaximal endurance exercise. (B) Cortisol levels in the sera at rest, and 0 and 30 min after the submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. *represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.05). # represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.01). %HRmax: percent of maximal heart rate. 85% VO2max: 85% of maximal oxygen consumption. 85% 1-RM: 85% of one repetition maximum. Recovery: time point at 30 min after each exercise.
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f1-jer-11-4-198: Physiological changes in the exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. (A) Heart rate at rest and after the exhaustive submaximal endurance exercise. (B) Cortisol levels in the sera at rest, and 0 and 30 min after the submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. *represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.05). # represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.01). %HRmax: percent of maximal heart rate. 85% VO2max: 85% of maximal oxygen consumption. 85% 1-RM: 85% of one repetition maximum. Recovery: time point at 30 min after each exercise.

Mentions: As an exhaustive endurance exercise model that would induce fatigue, the subjects performed a submaximal endurance exercise with 85% of VO2max until exhaustion. Their average running time was 28.85±4.74 min. Their heart rates dramatically increased during exercise, and hit a plateau 10 min after exercise (Fig. 1A). The cortisol levels in the sera also significantly increased after the exhaustive endurance exercise and such increments were maintained through the recovery (P<0.05; Fig. 1B).


Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress.

Jin CH, Paik IY, Kwak YS, Jee YS, Kim JY - J Exerc Rehabil (2015)

Physiological changes in the exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. (A) Heart rate at rest and after the exhaustive submaximal endurance exercise. (B) Cortisol levels in the sera at rest, and 0 and 30 min after the submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. *represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.05). # represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.01). %HRmax: percent of maximal heart rate. 85% VO2max: 85% of maximal oxygen consumption. 85% 1-RM: 85% of one repetition maximum. Recovery: time point at 30 min after each exercise.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4548676&req=5

f1-jer-11-4-198: Physiological changes in the exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. (A) Heart rate at rest and after the exhaustive submaximal endurance exercise. (B) Cortisol levels in the sera at rest, and 0 and 30 min after the submaximal endurance and resistance exercises. *represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.05). # represents statistical significance with “rest” (P<0.01). %HRmax: percent of maximal heart rate. 85% VO2max: 85% of maximal oxygen consumption. 85% 1-RM: 85% of one repetition maximum. Recovery: time point at 30 min after each exercise.
Mentions: As an exhaustive endurance exercise model that would induce fatigue, the subjects performed a submaximal endurance exercise with 85% of VO2max until exhaustion. Their average running time was 28.85±4.74 min. Their heart rates dramatically increased during exercise, and hit a plateau 10 min after exercise (Fig. 1A). The cortisol levels in the sera also significantly increased after the exhaustive endurance exercise and such increments were maintained through the recovery (P<0.05; Fig. 1B).

Bottom Line: Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles.In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors.This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Leisure and Gaming, Hanseo University, Seosan, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio).

Materials and methods: Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus