Limits...
Snakes and snakebite envenoming in Northern Tanzania: a neglected tropical health problem.

Kipanyula MJ, Kimaro WH - J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Among the dead ones, the following species were identified: two black-necked spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis); five puff adders (Bitis arietans), one common egg-eater (Dasypeltis scabra); two rufous-beaked snakes (Ramphiophis rostratus); two brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus); one Kenyan sand boa (Eryx colubrinus), and one black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis).Of all cases, 146 (61.6 %) and 96 (38.4 %) were male and female patients, respectively.These tasks demand integration of diverse stakeholders to achieve a common goal of reducing the impact of human suffering from these envenomings in Tanzania.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Chuo Kikuu, PO Box 3016, Morogoro, Tanzania.

ABSTRACT

Background: Snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-Saharan Africa. Generating a basic platform of information on the characteristics of snakes and snakebites in various countries is relevant for designing and implementing public health interventions.

Methods: This study was performed to identify types of snakes and some of the characteristics of snakebite cases in two communities, an agricultural and a pastoralist, in Arusha region, northern Tanzania. A total of 30 field visits were carried out in areas considered by local inhabitants to be potential microhabitats for snakes. Direct observation of snake types based on morphological features and a structured questionnaire were employed for data collection.

Results: A total of 25 live and 14 dead snakes were encountered. Among the dead ones, the following species were identified: two black-necked spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis); five puff adders (Bitis arietans), one common egg-eater (Dasypeltis scabra); two rufous-beaked snakes (Ramphiophis rostratus); two brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus); one Kenyan sand boa (Eryx colubrinus), and one black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis). The frequency of snake encounters was significantly higher (χ (2) = 4.6; p = 0.03) in the pastoral than in the agricultural area; there were more snakebite cases in the former, but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.7). A total of 242 snakebite victims attended at the Meserani Clinic, located in the study area, between the years 2007 to 2012. Of all cases, 146 (61.6 %) and 96 (38.4 %) were male and female patients, respectively. As for age distribution, 59.1 % of snakebite victims were from the economically active age groups between 15 and 55 years.

Conclusion: Snakebites are a threat to rural communities and public health in general. The burden of snakebites in Tanzania presents an epidemiologically similar picture to other tropical countries. Livestock keeping and agriculture are the major economic activities associated with snakebites. Community-based public education is required to create awareness on venomous snakes and predisposing factors to snakebites. These tasks demand integration of diverse stakeholders to achieve a common goal of reducing the impact of human suffering from these envenomings in Tanzania.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of the United Republic of Tanzania showing adminstrative regions, as well as Monduli district (in red) and the neighboring Arumeru district, in Arusha, where the two communities investigated in this study are located (image adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arusha_Region)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4548540&req=5

Fig1: Map of the United Republic of Tanzania showing adminstrative regions, as well as Monduli district (in red) and the neighboring Arumeru district, in Arusha, where the two communities investigated in this study are located (image adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arusha_Region)

Mentions: The study was conducted in two villages, namely Meserani Juu and Lesiraa, in the Monduli and Arumeru districts, respectively, in Arusha region, Tanzania. The districts are 1534 m above sea level between latitude 3°17′59″ S and longitude 36°27′00″ E (Fig. 1). Agriculture is the main economic activity practiced by community members in Meserani Juu village. In contrast, Lesiraa village is open grassland used by pastoralists (Maasai communities) for cattle grazing. The village is situated in a semiarid area characterized by a prolonged dry season lasting up to 7 months. The minimum and maximum average ambient temperatures are 16 and 27 °C, respectively. Selection of the study sites was based on the fact that the areas present microhabitats whose ecological features are associated with a rich herpetofauna and thus highly prone to reports of snakebite cases.Fig. 1


Snakes and snakebite envenoming in Northern Tanzania: a neglected tropical health problem.

Kipanyula MJ, Kimaro WH - J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis (2015)

Map of the United Republic of Tanzania showing adminstrative regions, as well as Monduli district (in red) and the neighboring Arumeru district, in Arusha, where the two communities investigated in this study are located (image adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arusha_Region)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4548540&req=5

Fig1: Map of the United Republic of Tanzania showing adminstrative regions, as well as Monduli district (in red) and the neighboring Arumeru district, in Arusha, where the two communities investigated in this study are located (image adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arusha_Region)
Mentions: The study was conducted in two villages, namely Meserani Juu and Lesiraa, in the Monduli and Arumeru districts, respectively, in Arusha region, Tanzania. The districts are 1534 m above sea level between latitude 3°17′59″ S and longitude 36°27′00″ E (Fig. 1). Agriculture is the main economic activity practiced by community members in Meserani Juu village. In contrast, Lesiraa village is open grassland used by pastoralists (Maasai communities) for cattle grazing. The village is situated in a semiarid area characterized by a prolonged dry season lasting up to 7 months. The minimum and maximum average ambient temperatures are 16 and 27 °C, respectively. Selection of the study sites was based on the fact that the areas present microhabitats whose ecological features are associated with a rich herpetofauna and thus highly prone to reports of snakebite cases.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Among the dead ones, the following species were identified: two black-necked spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis); five puff adders (Bitis arietans), one common egg-eater (Dasypeltis scabra); two rufous-beaked snakes (Ramphiophis rostratus); two brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus); one Kenyan sand boa (Eryx colubrinus), and one black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis).Of all cases, 146 (61.6 %) and 96 (38.4 %) were male and female patients, respectively.These tasks demand integration of diverse stakeholders to achieve a common goal of reducing the impact of human suffering from these envenomings in Tanzania.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Chuo Kikuu, PO Box 3016, Morogoro, Tanzania.

ABSTRACT

Background: Snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-Saharan Africa. Generating a basic platform of information on the characteristics of snakes and snakebites in various countries is relevant for designing and implementing public health interventions.

Methods: This study was performed to identify types of snakes and some of the characteristics of snakebite cases in two communities, an agricultural and a pastoralist, in Arusha region, northern Tanzania. A total of 30 field visits were carried out in areas considered by local inhabitants to be potential microhabitats for snakes. Direct observation of snake types based on morphological features and a structured questionnaire were employed for data collection.

Results: A total of 25 live and 14 dead snakes were encountered. Among the dead ones, the following species were identified: two black-necked spitting cobras (Naja nigricollis); five puff adders (Bitis arietans), one common egg-eater (Dasypeltis scabra); two rufous-beaked snakes (Ramphiophis rostratus); two brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus); one Kenyan sand boa (Eryx colubrinus), and one black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis). The frequency of snake encounters was significantly higher (χ (2) = 4.6; p = 0.03) in the pastoral than in the agricultural area; there were more snakebite cases in the former, but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.7). A total of 242 snakebite victims attended at the Meserani Clinic, located in the study area, between the years 2007 to 2012. Of all cases, 146 (61.6 %) and 96 (38.4 %) were male and female patients, respectively. As for age distribution, 59.1 % of snakebite victims were from the economically active age groups between 15 and 55 years.

Conclusion: Snakebites are a threat to rural communities and public health in general. The burden of snakebites in Tanzania presents an epidemiologically similar picture to other tropical countries. Livestock keeping and agriculture are the major economic activities associated with snakebites. Community-based public education is required to create awareness on venomous snakes and predisposing factors to snakebites. These tasks demand integration of diverse stakeholders to achieve a common goal of reducing the impact of human suffering from these envenomings in Tanzania.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus