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Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation.

Maestre FT, Escolar C, Bardgett RD, Dungait JA, Gozalo B, Ochoa V - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis.Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community.However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Móstoles, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Differences (Dif) in the total cover of the whole biocrust community (mosses + lichens, A), lichens (B) and mosses (C), and in biocrust richness (D) in areas with initial low and high biocrust cover between February 2009 and June 2013. Data represent means + SE (n = 10). CLC, control low biocrust cover, WLC, warming low biocrust cover, CHC, control high biocrust cover, WHC, warming high biocrust cover. ∗ indicate results deviating from 0 (non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test; ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01).
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Figure 1: Differences (Dif) in the total cover of the whole biocrust community (mosses + lichens, A), lichens (B) and mosses (C), and in biocrust richness (D) in areas with initial low and high biocrust cover between February 2009 and June 2013. Data represent means + SE (n = 10). CLC, control low biocrust cover, WLC, warming low biocrust cover, CHC, control high biocrust cover, WHC, warming high biocrust cover. ∗ indicate results deviating from 0 (non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test; ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01).

Mentions: At the end of our experiment, the biocrust cover in the LC and HC plots was 10.5/4.9 and 52.1/31.1% for the control and warming treatments, respectively. Across all treatments, we observed a 5% increase and 37% decrease of biocrust cover in LC and HC plots, respectively, at the end of our experiment (Figure 1A; PERMANOVA, pseudo-FCO = 74.04, P < 0.001). This response was not modified by WA (pseudo-FWA = 2.78, P = 0.102; pseudo-FCO×WA = 2.54, P = 0.126). The increase in moss and lichen cover observed in the LC control plots, and the decrease observed in the HC plots, was significant (Figure 1A). The analysis of the changes in cover for lichens alone yielded similar results to those described for the whole biocrust community, albeit a significant decrease in lichen cover was also observed with WA in the LC plots (Figure 1B; PERMANOVA, pseudo-FCO = 79.08, P < 0.001). In this case, plots subjected to warming showed a significant decrease in lichen cover as compared to control plots (PERMANOVA, pseudo-FWA = 7.83, P = 0.006). The analysis of variations in the cover of mosses showed a different picture, as these were not affected by WA (Figure 1C; PERMANOVA, pseudo-FWA = 2.22, P = 0.144; pseudo-FCO×WA = 0.07, P = 0.790). However, this cover increased in LC, but not in HC, plots (PERMANOVA, pseudo-FCO = 5.57, P = 0.019).


Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation.

Maestre FT, Escolar C, Bardgett RD, Dungait JA, Gozalo B, Ochoa V - Front Microbiol (2015)

Differences (Dif) in the total cover of the whole biocrust community (mosses + lichens, A), lichens (B) and mosses (C), and in biocrust richness (D) in areas with initial low and high biocrust cover between February 2009 and June 2013. Data represent means + SE (n = 10). CLC, control low biocrust cover, WLC, warming low biocrust cover, CHC, control high biocrust cover, WHC, warming high biocrust cover. ∗ indicate results deviating from 0 (non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test; ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4548238&req=5

Figure 1: Differences (Dif) in the total cover of the whole biocrust community (mosses + lichens, A), lichens (B) and mosses (C), and in biocrust richness (D) in areas with initial low and high biocrust cover between February 2009 and June 2013. Data represent means + SE (n = 10). CLC, control low biocrust cover, WLC, warming low biocrust cover, CHC, control high biocrust cover, WHC, warming high biocrust cover. ∗ indicate results deviating from 0 (non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test; ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01).
Mentions: At the end of our experiment, the biocrust cover in the LC and HC plots was 10.5/4.9 and 52.1/31.1% for the control and warming treatments, respectively. Across all treatments, we observed a 5% increase and 37% decrease of biocrust cover in LC and HC plots, respectively, at the end of our experiment (Figure 1A; PERMANOVA, pseudo-FCO = 74.04, P < 0.001). This response was not modified by WA (pseudo-FWA = 2.78, P = 0.102; pseudo-FCO×WA = 2.54, P = 0.126). The increase in moss and lichen cover observed in the LC control plots, and the decrease observed in the HC plots, was significant (Figure 1A). The analysis of the changes in cover for lichens alone yielded similar results to those described for the whole biocrust community, albeit a significant decrease in lichen cover was also observed with WA in the LC plots (Figure 1B; PERMANOVA, pseudo-FCO = 79.08, P < 0.001). In this case, plots subjected to warming showed a significant decrease in lichen cover as compared to control plots (PERMANOVA, pseudo-FWA = 7.83, P = 0.006). The analysis of variations in the cover of mosses showed a different picture, as these were not affected by WA (Figure 1C; PERMANOVA, pseudo-FWA = 2.22, P = 0.144; pseudo-FCO×WA = 0.07, P = 0.790). However, this cover increased in LC, but not in HC, plots (PERMANOVA, pseudo-FCO = 5.57, P = 0.019).

Bottom Line: This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis.Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community.However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Móstoles, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus