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Songbird: a unique animal model for studying the molecular basis of disorders of vocal development and communication.

Mori C, Wada K - Exp. Anim. (2015)

Bottom Line: Vocal learning requires coordination of auditory input and vocal output using auditory feedback to guide one's own vocalizations during a specific developmental stage known as the critical period.Songbirds are good animal models for understand the neural basis of vocal learning, a complex form of imitation, because they have many parallels to humans with regard to the features of vocal behavior and neural circuits dedicated to vocal learning.We will also discuss how studies of birdsong can help us understand how the development of neural circuits for vocal learning and production is driven by sensory input (auditory information) and motor output (vocalization).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Like humans, songbirds are one of the few animal groups that learn vocalization. Vocal learning requires coordination of auditory input and vocal output using auditory feedback to guide one's own vocalizations during a specific developmental stage known as the critical period. Songbirds are good animal models for understand the neural basis of vocal learning, a complex form of imitation, because they have many parallels to humans with regard to the features of vocal behavior and neural circuits dedicated to vocal learning. In this review, we will summarize the behavioral, neural, and genetic traits of birdsong. We will also discuss how studies of birdsong can help us understand how the development of neural circuits for vocal learning and production is driven by sensory input (auditory information) and motor output (vocalization).

No MeSH data available.


Schematic diagrams of the brain areas involved in vocal learning and production.(modified from Horita and Wada, 2011 [20], andPfenning et al., 2014 [50]).(A, B) Upper drawings illustrate a brain section from a male zebra finch (A) and ahuman (B). Solid black arrows denote connections within the posterior vocal motorcircuit (from HVC to RA to brainstem motor nuclei). White arrows denote connectionswithin the basal ganglia–forebrain circuit. Dashed black arrows denote connectionsbetween the two circuits. Red arrows show the direct connections found only in vocallearners, which project from vocal motor cortex regions to brain stem vocal motorneurons. (C, D) Lower drawings illustrate comparative and simplified connectivity ofanterior and posterior vocal circuits in a songbird (C) and a human (D). DLM: dorsallateral medial nucleus of the thalamus, DM: dorsal medial nucleus of the midbrain,HVC: a vocal nucleus (no acronym), LMAN: lateral MAN, MAN: magnocellular nucleus ofthe anterior nidopallium, nXIIts: twelfth nucleus, tracheosyringeal part, RA: robustnucleus of the arcopallium, Ram/Pam: nucleus retroambiguus/parambiguus.
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fig_003: Schematic diagrams of the brain areas involved in vocal learning and production.(modified from Horita and Wada, 2011 [20], andPfenning et al., 2014 [50]).(A, B) Upper drawings illustrate a brain section from a male zebra finch (A) and ahuman (B). Solid black arrows denote connections within the posterior vocal motorcircuit (from HVC to RA to brainstem motor nuclei). White arrows denote connectionswithin the basal ganglia–forebrain circuit. Dashed black arrows denote connectionsbetween the two circuits. Red arrows show the direct connections found only in vocallearners, which project from vocal motor cortex regions to brain stem vocal motorneurons. (C, D) Lower drawings illustrate comparative and simplified connectivity ofanterior and posterior vocal circuits in a songbird (C) and a human (D). DLM: dorsallateral medial nucleus of the thalamus, DM: dorsal medial nucleus of the midbrain,HVC: a vocal nucleus (no acronym), LMAN: lateral MAN, MAN: magnocellular nucleus ofthe anterior nidopallium, nXIIts: twelfth nucleus, tracheosyringeal part, RA: robustnucleus of the arcopallium, Ram/Pam: nucleus retroambiguus/parambiguus.

Mentions: In vertebrates such as mammals and birds, the central nervous system is divided into fivebasic regions: the hindbrain, the midbrain, the thalamus, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum.Across vertebrate species, there is similar structural organization throughout most of thesefive brain regions, except the cerebrum. In birds, the cerebrum is organized into large cellclusters; on the other hand, in mammals, the cerebrum is divided into subcortical nuclei,such as the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex, which consists of six main layers.However, recent studies have indicated that the avian striatal and pallidal domains are wellconserved in relation to their counterparts in the cerebrum of mammals (Fig. 3Fig. 3.


Songbird: a unique animal model for studying the molecular basis of disorders of vocal development and communication.

Mori C, Wada K - Exp. Anim. (2015)

Schematic diagrams of the brain areas involved in vocal learning and production.(modified from Horita and Wada, 2011 [20], andPfenning et al., 2014 [50]).(A, B) Upper drawings illustrate a brain section from a male zebra finch (A) and ahuman (B). Solid black arrows denote connections within the posterior vocal motorcircuit (from HVC to RA to brainstem motor nuclei). White arrows denote connectionswithin the basal ganglia–forebrain circuit. Dashed black arrows denote connectionsbetween the two circuits. Red arrows show the direct connections found only in vocallearners, which project from vocal motor cortex regions to brain stem vocal motorneurons. (C, D) Lower drawings illustrate comparative and simplified connectivity ofanterior and posterior vocal circuits in a songbird (C) and a human (D). DLM: dorsallateral medial nucleus of the thalamus, DM: dorsal medial nucleus of the midbrain,HVC: a vocal nucleus (no acronym), LMAN: lateral MAN, MAN: magnocellular nucleus ofthe anterior nidopallium, nXIIts: twelfth nucleus, tracheosyringeal part, RA: robustnucleus of the arcopallium, Ram/Pam: nucleus retroambiguus/parambiguus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4547995&req=5

fig_003: Schematic diagrams of the brain areas involved in vocal learning and production.(modified from Horita and Wada, 2011 [20], andPfenning et al., 2014 [50]).(A, B) Upper drawings illustrate a brain section from a male zebra finch (A) and ahuman (B). Solid black arrows denote connections within the posterior vocal motorcircuit (from HVC to RA to brainstem motor nuclei). White arrows denote connectionswithin the basal ganglia–forebrain circuit. Dashed black arrows denote connectionsbetween the two circuits. Red arrows show the direct connections found only in vocallearners, which project from vocal motor cortex regions to brain stem vocal motorneurons. (C, D) Lower drawings illustrate comparative and simplified connectivity ofanterior and posterior vocal circuits in a songbird (C) and a human (D). DLM: dorsallateral medial nucleus of the thalamus, DM: dorsal medial nucleus of the midbrain,HVC: a vocal nucleus (no acronym), LMAN: lateral MAN, MAN: magnocellular nucleus ofthe anterior nidopallium, nXIIts: twelfth nucleus, tracheosyringeal part, RA: robustnucleus of the arcopallium, Ram/Pam: nucleus retroambiguus/parambiguus.
Mentions: In vertebrates such as mammals and birds, the central nervous system is divided into fivebasic regions: the hindbrain, the midbrain, the thalamus, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum.Across vertebrate species, there is similar structural organization throughout most of thesefive brain regions, except the cerebrum. In birds, the cerebrum is organized into large cellclusters; on the other hand, in mammals, the cerebrum is divided into subcortical nuclei,such as the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex, which consists of six main layers.However, recent studies have indicated that the avian striatal and pallidal domains are wellconserved in relation to their counterparts in the cerebrum of mammals (Fig. 3Fig. 3.

Bottom Line: Vocal learning requires coordination of auditory input and vocal output using auditory feedback to guide one's own vocalizations during a specific developmental stage known as the critical period.Songbirds are good animal models for understand the neural basis of vocal learning, a complex form of imitation, because they have many parallels to humans with regard to the features of vocal behavior and neural circuits dedicated to vocal learning.We will also discuss how studies of birdsong can help us understand how the development of neural circuits for vocal learning and production is driven by sensory input (auditory information) and motor output (vocalization).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Like humans, songbirds are one of the few animal groups that learn vocalization. Vocal learning requires coordination of auditory input and vocal output using auditory feedback to guide one's own vocalizations during a specific developmental stage known as the critical period. Songbirds are good animal models for understand the neural basis of vocal learning, a complex form of imitation, because they have many parallels to humans with regard to the features of vocal behavior and neural circuits dedicated to vocal learning. In this review, we will summarize the behavioral, neural, and genetic traits of birdsong. We will also discuss how studies of birdsong can help us understand how the development of neural circuits for vocal learning and production is driven by sensory input (auditory information) and motor output (vocalization).

No MeSH data available.