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Monograph of Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae).

Holstein N - PhytoKeys (2015)

Bottom Line: Chromosome numbers are 2n = 20, 24, and 22 + XX/XY.Many Coccinia species are used for food, either as roasted tubers, greens as spinach, or the fruits as vegetables.Medicinal value is established in Cocciniagrandis, of which leaves and sap are used against diabetes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nees-Institute for Biodiversity of Plants, Meckenheimer Allee 170, 53115 Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This monograph deals with all 95 names described in the Cucurbitaceae genus Coccinia and recognizes 25 species. Taxonomic novelties are Cocciniaadoensisvar.aurantiaca (C.Jeffrey) Holstein, stat. nov., Cocciniasessilifoliavar.variifolia (A.Meeuse) Holstein, stat. nov., and Cocciniaadoensisvar.jeffreyana Holstein, var. nov. For the 25 species 3157 collections were examined, of which 2024 were georeferenced to produce distribution maps. All species are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa with one species, Cocciniagrandis, extending from Senegal in West Africa east to Indonesia and being naturalized on Pacific Islands, in Australia, the Caribbean, and South America. Coccinia species are dioecious creepers or climbers with simple or bifid tendrils that occupy a range of habitats from arid scrubland, woodlands to lowland rainforest and mist forest. The corolla of Coccinia species is sympetalous, usually pale yellow to orange, and 1 to 4.5 cm long. Pollination is by bees foraging for pollen or nectar. After pollination, the developing ovary often exhibits longitudinal mottling, which usually disappears during maturation. All species produce berries with a pericarp in reddish colors (orange-red through to scarlet red), hence the generic name. The globose to cylindrical fruits contain numerous grayish-beige flat to lenticular seeds. Chromosome numbers are 2n = 20, 24, and 22 + XX/XY. Many Coccinia species are used for food, either as roasted tubers, greens as spinach, or the fruits as vegetables. Medicinal value is established in Cocciniagrandis, of which leaves and sap are used against diabetes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution map of Cocciniaabyssinica (pale yellow dots; based on 23 collections) and Cocciniamegarrhiza (blue dots; based on 28 collections). For Ethiopia the borders of the regions are given.
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Figure 20: Distribution map of Cocciniaabyssinica (pale yellow dots; based on 23 collections) and Cocciniamegarrhiza (blue dots; based on 28 collections). For Ethiopia the borders of the regions are given.

Mentions: The Cocciniarehmannii clade (IV) consists of five species. Cocciniaabyssinica and Cocciniamegarrhiza are sister species from Ethiopia and semi-arid parts of N Kenya and Somalia (Fig. 20). They differ ecologically with the former species occurring in the semi-humid highlands and the latter one in the semi-arid lowlands. Both species differ weakly in morphology, and hybridization cannot be ruled out. The plastid haplotypes of both species do not form clades in the tree, which might be explained best by incomplete lineage sorting. The other three species of clade IV contain several plastid haplotypes and nrDNA sequences that each also do not form clades. The geographical distribution of the haplotypes is not assessed. The three species, however, are distinct. Cocciniarehmannii occurs in southern Africa while the other two species occur in NE Africa. In Cocciniarehmannii four forms can be recognized, which are included in the plastid phylogeny: (1) an inland form from dry habitats with small globose fruits (type form / var.rehmannii), (2) a form similar to var.rehmannii, but with larger globose fruits (described by Dinter and Gilg as Cocciniaovifera), (3) a long-petiolate and long-peduncled coastal form from the (semi-)humid Southeast (described by Meeuse as var.littoralis), and (4) plants with oblong fruits occurring in all semi-humid areas from the Southeast to the northern parts in the periphery of the Cocciniarehmannii distribution (Cocciniarehmannii 5; here referred to Cocciniarehmanniiaff. var.littoralis). None of these forms cluster together. The other two species differ morphologically and ecologically from each other: Cocciniatrilobata has, e.g., oblong fruits and occurs in the semi-humid uplands, and Cocciniamicrophylla has globose fruits and occurs in the semi-arid lowlands (Fig. 33). Interestingly, Cocciniamicrophylla does not differ morphologically from the Cocciniarehmannii form from the dry inland. This scenario suggests incomplete lineage sorting and a speciation event with ecological differentiation in the northeastern Africa but not in southern Africa as intermediate collections between the four forms are found regularly. The distribution of these three species and the estimated age of this clade of 3.2 Ma suggest either a long distance dispersal or vicariance. As each of the three species contains several plastid haplotypes, vicariance is more likely, which indicates that semi-arid conditions might have prevailed between today’s Tanzania and Zimbabwe. This has been suggested several times for different clades under the term “arid track” (Balinsky 1962; de Winter 1971).


Monograph of Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae).

Holstein N - PhytoKeys (2015)

Distribution map of Cocciniaabyssinica (pale yellow dots; based on 23 collections) and Cocciniamegarrhiza (blue dots; based on 28 collections). For Ethiopia the borders of the regions are given.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4547038&req=5

Figure 20: Distribution map of Cocciniaabyssinica (pale yellow dots; based on 23 collections) and Cocciniamegarrhiza (blue dots; based on 28 collections). For Ethiopia the borders of the regions are given.
Mentions: The Cocciniarehmannii clade (IV) consists of five species. Cocciniaabyssinica and Cocciniamegarrhiza are sister species from Ethiopia and semi-arid parts of N Kenya and Somalia (Fig. 20). They differ ecologically with the former species occurring in the semi-humid highlands and the latter one in the semi-arid lowlands. Both species differ weakly in morphology, and hybridization cannot be ruled out. The plastid haplotypes of both species do not form clades in the tree, which might be explained best by incomplete lineage sorting. The other three species of clade IV contain several plastid haplotypes and nrDNA sequences that each also do not form clades. The geographical distribution of the haplotypes is not assessed. The three species, however, are distinct. Cocciniarehmannii occurs in southern Africa while the other two species occur in NE Africa. In Cocciniarehmannii four forms can be recognized, which are included in the plastid phylogeny: (1) an inland form from dry habitats with small globose fruits (type form / var.rehmannii), (2) a form similar to var.rehmannii, but with larger globose fruits (described by Dinter and Gilg as Cocciniaovifera), (3) a long-petiolate and long-peduncled coastal form from the (semi-)humid Southeast (described by Meeuse as var.littoralis), and (4) plants with oblong fruits occurring in all semi-humid areas from the Southeast to the northern parts in the periphery of the Cocciniarehmannii distribution (Cocciniarehmannii 5; here referred to Cocciniarehmanniiaff. var.littoralis). None of these forms cluster together. The other two species differ morphologically and ecologically from each other: Cocciniatrilobata has, e.g., oblong fruits and occurs in the semi-humid uplands, and Cocciniamicrophylla has globose fruits and occurs in the semi-arid lowlands (Fig. 33). Interestingly, Cocciniamicrophylla does not differ morphologically from the Cocciniarehmannii form from the dry inland. This scenario suggests incomplete lineage sorting and a speciation event with ecological differentiation in the northeastern Africa but not in southern Africa as intermediate collections between the four forms are found regularly. The distribution of these three species and the estimated age of this clade of 3.2 Ma suggest either a long distance dispersal or vicariance. As each of the three species contains several plastid haplotypes, vicariance is more likely, which indicates that semi-arid conditions might have prevailed between today’s Tanzania and Zimbabwe. This has been suggested several times for different clades under the term “arid track” (Balinsky 1962; de Winter 1971).

Bottom Line: Chromosome numbers are 2n = 20, 24, and 22 + XX/XY.Many Coccinia species are used for food, either as roasted tubers, greens as spinach, or the fruits as vegetables.Medicinal value is established in Cocciniagrandis, of which leaves and sap are used against diabetes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nees-Institute for Biodiversity of Plants, Meckenheimer Allee 170, 53115 Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
This monograph deals with all 95 names described in the Cucurbitaceae genus Coccinia and recognizes 25 species. Taxonomic novelties are Cocciniaadoensisvar.aurantiaca (C.Jeffrey) Holstein, stat. nov., Cocciniasessilifoliavar.variifolia (A.Meeuse) Holstein, stat. nov., and Cocciniaadoensisvar.jeffreyana Holstein, var. nov. For the 25 species 3157 collections were examined, of which 2024 were georeferenced to produce distribution maps. All species are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa with one species, Cocciniagrandis, extending from Senegal in West Africa east to Indonesia and being naturalized on Pacific Islands, in Australia, the Caribbean, and South America. Coccinia species are dioecious creepers or climbers with simple or bifid tendrils that occupy a range of habitats from arid scrubland, woodlands to lowland rainforest and mist forest. The corolla of Coccinia species is sympetalous, usually pale yellow to orange, and 1 to 4.5 cm long. Pollination is by bees foraging for pollen or nectar. After pollination, the developing ovary often exhibits longitudinal mottling, which usually disappears during maturation. All species produce berries with a pericarp in reddish colors (orange-red through to scarlet red), hence the generic name. The globose to cylindrical fruits contain numerous grayish-beige flat to lenticular seeds. Chromosome numbers are 2n = 20, 24, and 22 + XX/XY. Many Coccinia species are used for food, either as roasted tubers, greens as spinach, or the fruits as vegetables. Medicinal value is established in Cocciniagrandis, of which leaves and sap are used against diabetes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus