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Appraisals Generate Specific Configurations of Facial Muscle Movements in a Gambling Task: Evidence for the Component Process Model of Emotion.

Gentsch K, Grandjean D, Scherer KR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset).Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive.Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Swiss Center for Affective Sciences (CISA), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Neuroscience of Emotion and Affective Dynamics Lab (NEAD), Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Scherer's Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2). We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset). Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive. Interaction effects of goal conduciveness and power appraisals were obtained in both experiments (Experiment 1: over the corrugator and cheek regions; Experiment 2: over the frontalis region) suggesting amplified goal conduciveness effects when power was high in contrast to invariant goal conduciveness effects when power was low. Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low. These interaction effects suggest that the appraisal of having sufficient control or power affects facial responses towards gambling outcomes. The result pattern suggests that corrugator and frontalis regions are primarily related to cognitive operations that process motivational pertinence, whereas the cheek region would be more influenced by coping implications. Our results provide first evidence demonstrating that cognitive-evaluative mechanisms related to goal conduciveness, control, and power appraisals affect facial expressions dynamically over time, immediately after an event is perceived. In addition, our results provide further indications for the chronography of appraisal-driven facial movements and the underlying cognitive processes.

No MeSH data available.


An example of a gambling task trial of Experiment 2.Presentation times of each trial event are indicated below the corresponding screen. At feedback onset, the information of goal conduciveness and power appraisals was simultaneously presented via a geometric shape in gray or black. A = accepting. R = rejecting. RT = reaction time.
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pone.0135837.g007: An example of a gambling task trial of Experiment 2.Presentation times of each trial event are indicated below the corresponding screen. At feedback onset, the information of goal conduciveness and power appraisals was simultaneously presented via a geometric shape in gray or black. A = accepting. R = rejecting. RT = reaction time.

Mentions: The gambling task of Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 (see Fig 7) except for (a) two levels of goal conduciveness (i.e., win and loss), which resulted in two presented circles (Fig 7, “Choice of circle”); (b) an increased number of trials (from 384 to 864 trials, presented in six blocks of 144 trials, randomized order) due to the control manipulation (each control block condition was presented three times); and (c) consequently, adjusted monetary magnitudes for wins and losses (+0.05 CHF and -0.05 CHF, respectively).


Appraisals Generate Specific Configurations of Facial Muscle Movements in a Gambling Task: Evidence for the Component Process Model of Emotion.

Gentsch K, Grandjean D, Scherer KR - PLoS ONE (2015)

An example of a gambling task trial of Experiment 2.Presentation times of each trial event are indicated below the corresponding screen. At feedback onset, the information of goal conduciveness and power appraisals was simultaneously presented via a geometric shape in gray or black. A = accepting. R = rejecting. RT = reaction time.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4546426&req=5

pone.0135837.g007: An example of a gambling task trial of Experiment 2.Presentation times of each trial event are indicated below the corresponding screen. At feedback onset, the information of goal conduciveness and power appraisals was simultaneously presented via a geometric shape in gray or black. A = accepting. R = rejecting. RT = reaction time.
Mentions: The gambling task of Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 (see Fig 7) except for (a) two levels of goal conduciveness (i.e., win and loss), which resulted in two presented circles (Fig 7, “Choice of circle”); (b) an increased number of trials (from 384 to 864 trials, presented in six blocks of 144 trials, randomized order) due to the control manipulation (each control block condition was presented three times); and (c) consequently, adjusted monetary magnitudes for wins and losses (+0.05 CHF and -0.05 CHF, respectively).

Bottom Line: We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset).Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive.Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Swiss Center for Affective Sciences (CISA), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Neuroscience of Emotion and Affective Dynamics Lab (NEAD), Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Scherer's Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2). We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset). Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive. Interaction effects of goal conduciveness and power appraisals were obtained in both experiments (Experiment 1: over the corrugator and cheek regions; Experiment 2: over the frontalis region) suggesting amplified goal conduciveness effects when power was high in contrast to invariant goal conduciveness effects when power was low. Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low. These interaction effects suggest that the appraisal of having sufficient control or power affects facial responses towards gambling outcomes. The result pattern suggests that corrugator and frontalis regions are primarily related to cognitive operations that process motivational pertinence, whereas the cheek region would be more influenced by coping implications. Our results provide first evidence demonstrating that cognitive-evaluative mechanisms related to goal conduciveness, control, and power appraisals affect facial expressions dynamically over time, immediately after an event is perceived. In addition, our results provide further indications for the chronography of appraisal-driven facial movements and the underlying cognitive processes.

No MeSH data available.