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The Enfacement Illusion Is Not Affected by Negative Facial Expressions.

Beck B, Cardini F, Làdavas E, Bertini C - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior.We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance.Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro studi e ricerche in Neuroscienze Cognitive (CNC), University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Enfacement is an illusion wherein synchronous visual and tactile inputs update the mental representation of one's own face to assimilate another person's face. Emotional facial expressions, serving as communicative signals, may influence enfacement by increasing the observer's motivation to understand the mental state of the expresser. Fearful expressions, in particular, might increase enfacement because they are valuable for adaptive behavior and more strongly represented in somatosensory cortex than other emotions. In the present study, a face was seen being touched at the same time as the participant's own face. This face was either neutral, fearful, or angry. Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior. We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance. Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions. Synchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation led to assimilation of the other's face, but this assimilation was not modulated by facial expression processing. This finding suggests that dynamic, multisensory processes of self-face identification operate independently of facial expression processing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean ratings of agreement (±SEM) with enfacement illusion questionnaire items.Ratings were made on a Likert scale from -3 (strongly disagree) to 3 (strongly agree). Enfacement is evident in higher ratings of agreement after synchronous IMS than after asynchronous IMS. A) Mean ratings averaged across facial expression conditions. * = sig. at p < .004 (Bonferroni correction), one-tailed; NS = non-sig. B) Mean ratings in each facial expression condition. Note that there were no significant interactions between IMS mode and facial expression for any of the questionnaire items.
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pone.0136273.g004: Mean ratings of agreement (±SEM) with enfacement illusion questionnaire items.Ratings were made on a Likert scale from -3 (strongly disagree) to 3 (strongly agree). Enfacement is evident in higher ratings of agreement after synchronous IMS than after asynchronous IMS. A) Mean ratings averaged across facial expression conditions. * = sig. at p < .004 (Bonferroni correction), one-tailed; NS = non-sig. B) Mean ratings in each facial expression condition. Note that there were no significant interactions between IMS mode and facial expression for any of the questionnaire items.

Mentions: First, responses to each of the 14 questionnaire items were averaged across emotion conditions to look for a main effect of IMS mode (synchronous vs. asychronous), with higher ratings of agreement predicted in the synchronous session than in the asynchronous session. Ratings were compared using a series of one-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a Bonferroni correction to control the family-wise error rate. Participants gave higher ratings of agreement to 10 of the 14 illusion questionnaire items after synchronous relative to asynchronous IMS (Fig 4), indicating that synchronous IMS successfully induced a subjective illusion of self/other merging.


The Enfacement Illusion Is Not Affected by Negative Facial Expressions.

Beck B, Cardini F, Làdavas E, Bertini C - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean ratings of agreement (±SEM) with enfacement illusion questionnaire items.Ratings were made on a Likert scale from -3 (strongly disagree) to 3 (strongly agree). Enfacement is evident in higher ratings of agreement after synchronous IMS than after asynchronous IMS. A) Mean ratings averaged across facial expression conditions. * = sig. at p < .004 (Bonferroni correction), one-tailed; NS = non-sig. B) Mean ratings in each facial expression condition. Note that there were no significant interactions between IMS mode and facial expression for any of the questionnaire items.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4546364&req=5

pone.0136273.g004: Mean ratings of agreement (±SEM) with enfacement illusion questionnaire items.Ratings were made on a Likert scale from -3 (strongly disagree) to 3 (strongly agree). Enfacement is evident in higher ratings of agreement after synchronous IMS than after asynchronous IMS. A) Mean ratings averaged across facial expression conditions. * = sig. at p < .004 (Bonferroni correction), one-tailed; NS = non-sig. B) Mean ratings in each facial expression condition. Note that there were no significant interactions between IMS mode and facial expression for any of the questionnaire items.
Mentions: First, responses to each of the 14 questionnaire items were averaged across emotion conditions to look for a main effect of IMS mode (synchronous vs. asychronous), with higher ratings of agreement predicted in the synchronous session than in the asynchronous session. Ratings were compared using a series of one-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a Bonferroni correction to control the family-wise error rate. Participants gave higher ratings of agreement to 10 of the 14 illusion questionnaire items after synchronous relative to asynchronous IMS (Fig 4), indicating that synchronous IMS successfully induced a subjective illusion of self/other merging.

Bottom Line: Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior.We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance.Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro studi e ricerche in Neuroscienze Cognitive (CNC), University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Enfacement is an illusion wherein synchronous visual and tactile inputs update the mental representation of one's own face to assimilate another person's face. Emotional facial expressions, serving as communicative signals, may influence enfacement by increasing the observer's motivation to understand the mental state of the expresser. Fearful expressions, in particular, might increase enfacement because they are valuable for adaptive behavior and more strongly represented in somatosensory cortex than other emotions. In the present study, a face was seen being touched at the same time as the participant's own face. This face was either neutral, fearful, or angry. Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior. We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance. Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions. Synchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation led to assimilation of the other's face, but this assimilation was not modulated by facial expression processing. This finding suggests that dynamic, multisensory processes of self-face identification operate independently of facial expression processing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus