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Prevalence of clinically and empirically defined talents and strengths in autism.

Meilleur AA, Jelenic P, Mottron L - J Autism Dev Disord (2015)

Bottom Line: However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown.The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age.This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Montreal Center of Excellence for Pervasive Developmental Disorders (CETEDUM), Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, 7070 Perras Blvd., Montreal, QC, H1E 1A4, Canada, ameilleur009@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Outstanding skills, including special isolated skills (SIS) and perceptual peaks (PP) are frequent features of autism. However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown. We determined the prevalence of SIS in a large group of 254 autistic individuals and searched for PP in 46 of these autistic individuals and 46 intelligence and age-matched typically developing controls. The prevalence of SIS among autistic individuals was 62.5% and that of PP was 58% (13% in controls). The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age. The existence of an SIS in a particular modality was not associated with the presence of a PP in the same modality. This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Graph showing the percentage of the sample from Study 2 with (blue) and without (red) strengths, or “Perceptual Peaks” (PP), in any task and in each task separately. The graph shows the percentages separately for typically developing (TD) controls (left) and autistics (right). The proportion of individuals with and without PP is significantly different between TD controls and autistics. * p < 0.001
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Fig4: Graph showing the percentage of the sample from Study 2 with (blue) and without (red) strengths, or “Perceptual Peaks” (PP), in any task and in each task separately. The graph shows the percentages separately for typically developing (TD) controls (left) and autistics (right). The proportion of individuals with and without PP is significantly different between TD controls and autistics. * p < 0.001

Mentions: Table 3b shows the prevalence of PP (defined as a performance level at least 1 standard deviation above the general intellectual functioning of the particular individual) and the age and intelligence level of participants with or without PP. Figure 4 illustrates the prevalence of PP by modality. The proportion of autistic individuals with PP in at least one modality was 57.5 % (23/40), whereas this figure was only 13.2 % (5/38) for controls. Analysis of participants who successfully completed both empirical tasks (n = 33 per group) showed that auditory and visual peaks were equivalently distributed in autistic (McNemar test p = 0.774) and non-autistic individuals (McNemar test p = 1.000) (Fig. 4). Logistic regression analysis showed that the chances of having a PP in either task were significantly greater for autistic individuals than for controls (Table 4b; Fig. 4).Fig. 4


Prevalence of clinically and empirically defined talents and strengths in autism.

Meilleur AA, Jelenic P, Mottron L - J Autism Dev Disord (2015)

Graph showing the percentage of the sample from Study 2 with (blue) and without (red) strengths, or “Perceptual Peaks” (PP), in any task and in each task separately. The graph shows the percentages separately for typically developing (TD) controls (left) and autistics (right). The proportion of individuals with and without PP is significantly different between TD controls and autistics. * p < 0.001
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544492&req=5

Fig4: Graph showing the percentage of the sample from Study 2 with (blue) and without (red) strengths, or “Perceptual Peaks” (PP), in any task and in each task separately. The graph shows the percentages separately for typically developing (TD) controls (left) and autistics (right). The proportion of individuals with and without PP is significantly different between TD controls and autistics. * p < 0.001
Mentions: Table 3b shows the prevalence of PP (defined as a performance level at least 1 standard deviation above the general intellectual functioning of the particular individual) and the age and intelligence level of participants with or without PP. Figure 4 illustrates the prevalence of PP by modality. The proportion of autistic individuals with PP in at least one modality was 57.5 % (23/40), whereas this figure was only 13.2 % (5/38) for controls. Analysis of participants who successfully completed both empirical tasks (n = 33 per group) showed that auditory and visual peaks were equivalently distributed in autistic (McNemar test p = 0.774) and non-autistic individuals (McNemar test p = 1.000) (Fig. 4). Logistic regression analysis showed that the chances of having a PP in either task were significantly greater for autistic individuals than for controls (Table 4b; Fig. 4).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown.The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age.This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Montreal Center of Excellence for Pervasive Developmental Disorders (CETEDUM), Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, 7070 Perras Blvd., Montreal, QC, H1E 1A4, Canada, ameilleur009@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Outstanding skills, including special isolated skills (SIS) and perceptual peaks (PP) are frequent features of autism. However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown. We determined the prevalence of SIS in a large group of 254 autistic individuals and searched for PP in 46 of these autistic individuals and 46 intelligence and age-matched typically developing controls. The prevalence of SIS among autistic individuals was 62.5% and that of PP was 58% (13% in controls). The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age. The existence of an SIS in a particular modality was not associated with the presence of a PP in the same modality. This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus