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Prevalence of clinically and empirically defined talents and strengths in autism.

Meilleur AA, Jelenic P, Mottron L - J Autism Dev Disord (2015)

Bottom Line: However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown.The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age.This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Montreal Center of Excellence for Pervasive Developmental Disorders (CETEDUM), Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, 7070 Perras Blvd., Montreal, QC, H1E 1A4, Canada, ameilleur009@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Outstanding skills, including special isolated skills (SIS) and perceptual peaks (PP) are frequent features of autism. However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown. We determined the prevalence of SIS in a large group of 254 autistic individuals and searched for PP in 46 of these autistic individuals and 46 intelligence and age-matched typically developing controls. The prevalence of SIS among autistic individuals was 62.5% and that of PP was 58% (13% in controls). The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age. The existence of an SIS in a particular modality was not associated with the presence of a PP in the same modality. This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

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Performance level on experimental tasks (Block design, Pitch discrimination) and on intelligence measures (Wechsler’s Global IQ (GIQ), Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM)). Performance levels are shown in z score for autistics (light grey) and the typically developing (TD) controls (dark grey). The stars above the brackets, at the top of the graph, represent significance levels for differences in task performance separately for each group. The last line at the bottom of the graph indicates significance levels for between group differences in performance separately for each task and measure. ** p < 0.001; * p < 0.001
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Fig3: Performance level on experimental tasks (Block design, Pitch discrimination) and on intelligence measures (Wechsler’s Global IQ (GIQ), Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM)). Performance levels are shown in z score for autistics (light grey) and the typically developing (TD) controls (dark grey). The stars above the brackets, at the top of the graph, represent significance levels for differences in task performance separately for each group. The last line at the bottom of the graph indicates significance levels for between group differences in performance separately for each task and measure. ** p < 0.001; * p < 0.001

Mentions: We examined overall group differences in auditory and visual performance for autistic and non-autistic individuals of comparable age and RPM measured intelligence. The autistic group was more sensitive to pitch change than the TD control group (t(69) = −3.077, p = 0.003, d = −0.73) and tended to perform better in the BD task, although this latter difference was not significant (trend, t(71) = −1.924, p = 0.058, d = −0.45) (Fig. 3). Analysis of between-task differences revealed that the performance of autistic individuals in perceptual tasks was better than their general intellectual functioning when intelligence was measured by Wechsler’s GIQ, but not by RPM. This supports the findings of Dawson et al., which suggest that the intelligence level of autistic individuals is probably underestimated when measured with Wechsler’s GIQ and not RPM (Dawson et al. 2007). There were no statistically significant differences in performance between auditory and visual tasks in TD controls (p > 0.01).Fig. 3


Prevalence of clinically and empirically defined talents and strengths in autism.

Meilleur AA, Jelenic P, Mottron L - J Autism Dev Disord (2015)

Performance level on experimental tasks (Block design, Pitch discrimination) and on intelligence measures (Wechsler’s Global IQ (GIQ), Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM)). Performance levels are shown in z score for autistics (light grey) and the typically developing (TD) controls (dark grey). The stars above the brackets, at the top of the graph, represent significance levels for differences in task performance separately for each group. The last line at the bottom of the graph indicates significance levels for between group differences in performance separately for each task and measure. ** p < 0.001; * p < 0.001
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544492&req=5

Fig3: Performance level on experimental tasks (Block design, Pitch discrimination) and on intelligence measures (Wechsler’s Global IQ (GIQ), Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM)). Performance levels are shown in z score for autistics (light grey) and the typically developing (TD) controls (dark grey). The stars above the brackets, at the top of the graph, represent significance levels for differences in task performance separately for each group. The last line at the bottom of the graph indicates significance levels for between group differences in performance separately for each task and measure. ** p < 0.001; * p < 0.001
Mentions: We examined overall group differences in auditory and visual performance for autistic and non-autistic individuals of comparable age and RPM measured intelligence. The autistic group was more sensitive to pitch change than the TD control group (t(69) = −3.077, p = 0.003, d = −0.73) and tended to perform better in the BD task, although this latter difference was not significant (trend, t(71) = −1.924, p = 0.058, d = −0.45) (Fig. 3). Analysis of between-task differences revealed that the performance of autistic individuals in perceptual tasks was better than their general intellectual functioning when intelligence was measured by Wechsler’s GIQ, but not by RPM. This supports the findings of Dawson et al., which suggest that the intelligence level of autistic individuals is probably underestimated when measured with Wechsler’s GIQ and not RPM (Dawson et al. 2007). There were no statistically significant differences in performance between auditory and visual tasks in TD controls (p > 0.01).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown.The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age.This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Montreal Center of Excellence for Pervasive Developmental Disorders (CETEDUM), Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, 7070 Perras Blvd., Montreal, QC, H1E 1A4, Canada, ameilleur009@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Outstanding skills, including special isolated skills (SIS) and perceptual peaks (PP) are frequent features of autism. However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown. We determined the prevalence of SIS in a large group of 254 autistic individuals and searched for PP in 46 of these autistic individuals and 46 intelligence and age-matched typically developing controls. The prevalence of SIS among autistic individuals was 62.5% and that of PP was 58% (13% in controls). The prevalence of SIS increased with intelligence and age. The existence of an SIS in a particular modality was not associated with the presence of a PP in the same modality. This suggests that talents involve an experience-dependent component in addition to genetically defined alterations of perceptual encoding.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus