Limits...
Changes in chemical coding of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying porcine urinary bladder after botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment.

Lepiarczyk E, Bossowska A, Majewski M - Cell Tissue Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin used in medicine as an effective drug in experimental therapy of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders.BTX injections caused a decrease in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunopositive to NPY (39.5 ± 4.5 % vs 74.5 ± 11.9 %), VIP (8.9 ± 5.3 % vs 22.3 ± 8.8 %), SOM (5.8 ± 2.3 % vs 17.4 ± 3.7 %) or GAL (0.9 ± 1.2 % vs 5.4 ± 4.4 %) and a distinct increase in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunoreactive to L-ENK (3.7 ± 2.9 % vs 1.1 % ± 0.8 %) or nNOS (7.7 ± 3.5 % vs 0.8 ± 0.6 %).Our study provides novel evidence that the therapeutic effects of BTX on the mammalian urinary bladder are partly mediated by SChG neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, 10-082, Olsztyn, Poland, ewa.lepiarczyk@uwm.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin used in medicine as an effective drug in experimental therapy of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders. We have investigated the influence of BTX on the chemical coding of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder. The toxin was injected into the wall of the bladder. SChG neurons were visualized by a retrograde tracing method with fluorescent tracer fast blue (FB) and their chemical coding was investigated by double-labelling immunohistochemistry with antibodies against dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH; a marker of noradrenergic neurons), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL), Leu(5)-enkephalin (L-ENK) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In both the control (n = 5) and BTX-treated pigs (n = 5), the vast majority (91 ± 2.3 % and 89.8 ± 2.5 %, respectively) of FB-positive (FB+) nerve cells were DβH+. BTX injections caused a decrease in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunopositive to NPY (39.5 ± 4.5 % vs 74.5 ± 11.9 %), VIP (8.9 ± 5.3 % vs 22.3 ± 8.8 %), SOM (5.8 ± 2.3 % vs 17.4 ± 3.7 %) or GAL (0.9 ± 1.2 % vs 5.4 ± 4.4 %) and a distinct increase in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunoreactive to L-ENK (3.7 ± 2.9 % vs 1.1 % ± 0.8 %) or nNOS (7.7 ± 3.5 % vs 0.8 ± 0.6 %). Our study provides novel evidence that the therapeutic effects of BTX on the mammalian urinary bladder are partly mediated by SChG neurons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bar diagram showing relative frequencies (%) of urinary bladder-projecting neurons in sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) of the control pigs (n = 5, open bars) and the BTX-treated animals (n = 5, solid bars). Each bar represents mean ± SD of pooled data from one pair of SChG (pTh penultimate thoracic ganglion, hTh hindmost thoracic ganglion, L lumbar ganglion, S sacral ganglion)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544485&req=5

Fig2: Bar diagram showing relative frequencies (%) of urinary bladder-projecting neurons in sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) of the control pigs (n = 5, open bars) and the BTX-treated animals (n = 5, solid bars). Each bar represents mean ± SD of pooled data from one pair of SChG (pTh penultimate thoracic ganglion, hTh hindmost thoracic ganglion, L lumbar ganglion, S sacral ganglion)

Mentions: After injection of FB into the wall of the right side of the urinary bladder, FB+ neurons were found distributed in the bilateral Th, L and S SChG, from the last two Th ganglia to the S3 ganglia in all the pigs. Distinct left-right differences were observed as the vast majority of the neurons in both control and BTX-treated animals were found in the right and thus ipsilateral ganglia. In control pigs, 1364 ± 154.6 FB+ neurons (16.5 ± 2.9 %) were found in the left SChG and 7011 ± 935.1 neurons (83.5 ± 2.9 %) were found in the right SChG. In the BTX-treated animals, 1199 ± 97.6 FB+ neurons (14.5 ± 2.1 %) were found in the left SChG and 7133 ± 652.9 FB+ neurons (85.5 ± 2.1 %) were found in the right SChG. Moreover, in both the control and experimental pigs, the right L3, L5 and S2 ganglia appeared to contain distinctly more FB+ neurons than each of the other ganglia. The relative frequency of FB+ neurons in the particular SChG of the control and BTX-treated animals is shown in Fig. 2.Fig. 2


Changes in chemical coding of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying porcine urinary bladder after botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment.

Lepiarczyk E, Bossowska A, Majewski M - Cell Tissue Res. (2015)

Bar diagram showing relative frequencies (%) of urinary bladder-projecting neurons in sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) of the control pigs (n = 5, open bars) and the BTX-treated animals (n = 5, solid bars). Each bar represents mean ± SD of pooled data from one pair of SChG (pTh penultimate thoracic ganglion, hTh hindmost thoracic ganglion, L lumbar ganglion, S sacral ganglion)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544485&req=5

Fig2: Bar diagram showing relative frequencies (%) of urinary bladder-projecting neurons in sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) of the control pigs (n = 5, open bars) and the BTX-treated animals (n = 5, solid bars). Each bar represents mean ± SD of pooled data from one pair of SChG (pTh penultimate thoracic ganglion, hTh hindmost thoracic ganglion, L lumbar ganglion, S sacral ganglion)
Mentions: After injection of FB into the wall of the right side of the urinary bladder, FB+ neurons were found distributed in the bilateral Th, L and S SChG, from the last two Th ganglia to the S3 ganglia in all the pigs. Distinct left-right differences were observed as the vast majority of the neurons in both control and BTX-treated animals were found in the right and thus ipsilateral ganglia. In control pigs, 1364 ± 154.6 FB+ neurons (16.5 ± 2.9 %) were found in the left SChG and 7011 ± 935.1 neurons (83.5 ± 2.9 %) were found in the right SChG. In the BTX-treated animals, 1199 ± 97.6 FB+ neurons (14.5 ± 2.1 %) were found in the left SChG and 7133 ± 652.9 FB+ neurons (85.5 ± 2.1 %) were found in the right SChG. Moreover, in both the control and experimental pigs, the right L3, L5 and S2 ganglia appeared to contain distinctly more FB+ neurons than each of the other ganglia. The relative frequency of FB+ neurons in the particular SChG of the control and BTX-treated animals is shown in Fig. 2.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin used in medicine as an effective drug in experimental therapy of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders.BTX injections caused a decrease in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunopositive to NPY (39.5 ± 4.5 % vs 74.5 ± 11.9 %), VIP (8.9 ± 5.3 % vs 22.3 ± 8.8 %), SOM (5.8 ± 2.3 % vs 17.4 ± 3.7 %) or GAL (0.9 ± 1.2 % vs 5.4 ± 4.4 %) and a distinct increase in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunoreactive to L-ENK (3.7 ± 2.9 % vs 1.1 % ± 0.8 %) or nNOS (7.7 ± 3.5 % vs 0.8 ± 0.6 %).Our study provides novel evidence that the therapeutic effects of BTX on the mammalian urinary bladder are partly mediated by SChG neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, 10-082, Olsztyn, Poland, ewa.lepiarczyk@uwm.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin used in medicine as an effective drug in experimental therapy of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders. We have investigated the influence of BTX on the chemical coding of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder. The toxin was injected into the wall of the bladder. SChG neurons were visualized by a retrograde tracing method with fluorescent tracer fast blue (FB) and their chemical coding was investigated by double-labelling immunohistochemistry with antibodies against dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH; a marker of noradrenergic neurons), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL), Leu(5)-enkephalin (L-ENK) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In both the control (n = 5) and BTX-treated pigs (n = 5), the vast majority (91 ± 2.3 % and 89.8 ± 2.5 %, respectively) of FB-positive (FB+) nerve cells were DβH+. BTX injections caused a decrease in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunopositive to NPY (39.5 ± 4.5 % vs 74.5 ± 11.9 %), VIP (8.9 ± 5.3 % vs 22.3 ± 8.8 %), SOM (5.8 ± 2.3 % vs 17.4 ± 3.7 %) or GAL (0.9 ± 1.2 % vs 5.4 ± 4.4 %) and a distinct increase in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons that were immunoreactive to L-ENK (3.7 ± 2.9 % vs 1.1 % ± 0.8 %) or nNOS (7.7 ± 3.5 % vs 0.8 ± 0.6 %). Our study provides novel evidence that the therapeutic effects of BTX on the mammalian urinary bladder are partly mediated by SChG neurons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus