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Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies.

Leal-Lopes C, Velloso FJ, Campopiano JC, Sogayar MC, Correa RG - J Diabetes Res (2015)

Bottom Line: The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body.The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis.Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry Institute, University of São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil ; Cell and Molecular Therapy Center (NUCEL-NETCEM), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 05360-130 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body. On the other hand, the pancreas may be affected by devastating diseases, such as pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), and diabetes mellitus (DM), which generally results in a wide metabolic imbalance. The causes for the development and progression of these diseases are still controversial; therefore it is essential to better understand the underlying mechanisms which compromise the pancreatic homeostasis. The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis. Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the present review, we discuss recent findings on the behavior and functions played by the microbiota in major pancreatic diseases and provide further insights into its potential roles in the maintenance of pancreatic steady-state activities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The different routes of interaction between the microbiota and the host.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: The different routes of interaction between the microbiota and the host.

Mentions: The human microbiota (the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms present in our body) or microbiome (entire genome sequence of a microbial community) [1, 2] has recently emerged as an important factor in human physiology, both under homeostatic (health) and pathological conditions [3]. The microbiome is predominantly formed by bacteria but also comprises fungi, yeast, viruses, and archaea that live in our bodies, with each particular region of the body corresponding to a highly specialized niche characterized by its own microbial clusters, society dynamics, and interaction with the host tissue [4]. Remarkably, 90% of the cells in the human body are constituted by prokaryotic cells which form the microbiota [5] and participate in metabolic functions, contribute to the education of the immune system, protect against pathogenic microorganisms (Figure 1), and, through these basic functions, directly or indirectly, affect many of our physiological functions [6].


Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies.

Leal-Lopes C, Velloso FJ, Campopiano JC, Sogayar MC, Correa RG - J Diabetes Res (2015)

The different routes of interaction between the microbiota and the host.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544440&req=5

fig1: The different routes of interaction between the microbiota and the host.
Mentions: The human microbiota (the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms present in our body) or microbiome (entire genome sequence of a microbial community) [1, 2] has recently emerged as an important factor in human physiology, both under homeostatic (health) and pathological conditions [3]. The microbiome is predominantly formed by bacteria but also comprises fungi, yeast, viruses, and archaea that live in our bodies, with each particular region of the body corresponding to a highly specialized niche characterized by its own microbial clusters, society dynamics, and interaction with the host tissue [4]. Remarkably, 90% of the cells in the human body are constituted by prokaryotic cells which form the microbiota [5] and participate in metabolic functions, contribute to the education of the immune system, protect against pathogenic microorganisms (Figure 1), and, through these basic functions, directly or indirectly, affect many of our physiological functions [6].

Bottom Line: The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body.The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis.Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry Institute, University of São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil ; Cell and Molecular Therapy Center (NUCEL-NETCEM), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 05360-130 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body. On the other hand, the pancreas may be affected by devastating diseases, such as pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), and diabetes mellitus (DM), which generally results in a wide metabolic imbalance. The causes for the development and progression of these diseases are still controversial; therefore it is essential to better understand the underlying mechanisms which compromise the pancreatic homeostasis. The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis. Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the present review, we discuss recent findings on the behavior and functions played by the microbiota in major pancreatic diseases and provide further insights into its potential roles in the maintenance of pancreatic steady-state activities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus