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Protective effects of forced exercise against methylphenidate-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat.

Motaghinejad M, Motevalian M, Larijani SF, Khajehamedi Z - Adv Biomed Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Methylphenidate (MPH), a neural stimulant, can cause damages to brain; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of MPH remain unclear.Group 1 served as negative control, received normal saline (0.2 ml/rat) for 21 days, group 2 and 3 (as positive controls) received MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 21 days.In addition between 17(th) and 21(th) days, Morris Water Maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the effect of MPH on spatial learning and memory.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Razi Drug Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: Methylphenidate (MPH), a neural stimulant, can cause damages to brain; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of MPH remain unclear. Exercise lowers stress and anxiety and can act as non-pharmacologic neuroprotective agent. In this study protective effects of exercise in MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment were investigated.

Materials and methods: Seventy adult male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group 1 served as negative control, received normal saline (0.2 ml/rat) for 21 days, group 2 and 3 (as positive controls) received MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 4 and 5 concurrently were treated with MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) and forced exercise for 21 days. On day 21, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Open Field Test (OFT), Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) were used to investigate the level of anxiety and depression in animals. In addition between 17(th) and 21(th) days, Morris Water Maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the effect of MPH on spatial learning and memory.

Results: MPH-treated animals indicated a reflective depression and anxiety in a dose-dependent manner in FST, EPM and TST which were significantly different from the control group and also can significantly attenuate the motor activity and anxiety in OFT. Forced exercise by treadmill can attenuate MPH-induced anxiety, depression and motor activity alteration in OFT. MPH also can disturb learning and memory in MWM and forced exercise can neutralize this effect of MPH.

Conclusion: We conclude that forced exercise can be protective in brain against MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition alteration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Swimming time (seconds) in Forced Swim Test (FST) in the control group, and groups under treatment with 10 and 20 mg/kg of Methylphenidate and the same doses of methylphenidate in combination with forced exercise. All data are expressed as Mean ± SD (n=8). * P< 0.05 vs10 mg/kg of methylphenidate. **P< 0.05 vs. 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate. #P< 0.05 vs. control groups. MPH: Methylphenidate
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Figure 1: Swimming time (seconds) in Forced Swim Test (FST) in the control group, and groups under treatment with 10 and 20 mg/kg of Methylphenidate and the same doses of methylphenidate in combination with forced exercise. All data are expressed as Mean ± SD (n=8). * P< 0.05 vs10 mg/kg of methylphenidate. **P< 0.05 vs. 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate. #P< 0.05 vs. control groups. MPH: Methylphenidate

Mentions: The MPH-treated group with doses 10 and 20 mg/kg in comparison with the negative control group, spent less time swimming in the FST with P < 0.05 [Figure 1].


Protective effects of forced exercise against methylphenidate-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat.

Motaghinejad M, Motevalian M, Larijani SF, Khajehamedi Z - Adv Biomed Res (2015)

Swimming time (seconds) in Forced Swim Test (FST) in the control group, and groups under treatment with 10 and 20 mg/kg of Methylphenidate and the same doses of methylphenidate in combination with forced exercise. All data are expressed as Mean ± SD (n=8). * P< 0.05 vs10 mg/kg of methylphenidate. **P< 0.05 vs. 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate. #P< 0.05 vs. control groups. MPH: Methylphenidate
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544126&req=5

Figure 1: Swimming time (seconds) in Forced Swim Test (FST) in the control group, and groups under treatment with 10 and 20 mg/kg of Methylphenidate and the same doses of methylphenidate in combination with forced exercise. All data are expressed as Mean ± SD (n=8). * P< 0.05 vs10 mg/kg of methylphenidate. **P< 0.05 vs. 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate. #P< 0.05 vs. control groups. MPH: Methylphenidate
Mentions: The MPH-treated group with doses 10 and 20 mg/kg in comparison with the negative control group, spent less time swimming in the FST with P < 0.05 [Figure 1].

Bottom Line: Methylphenidate (MPH), a neural stimulant, can cause damages to brain; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of MPH remain unclear.Group 1 served as negative control, received normal saline (0.2 ml/rat) for 21 days, group 2 and 3 (as positive controls) received MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 21 days.In addition between 17(th) and 21(th) days, Morris Water Maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the effect of MPH on spatial learning and memory.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Razi Drug Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: Methylphenidate (MPH), a neural stimulant, can cause damages to brain; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of MPH remain unclear. Exercise lowers stress and anxiety and can act as non-pharmacologic neuroprotective agent. In this study protective effects of exercise in MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment were investigated.

Materials and methods: Seventy adult male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group 1 served as negative control, received normal saline (0.2 ml/rat) for 21 days, group 2 and 3 (as positive controls) received MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 4 and 5 concurrently were treated with MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) and forced exercise for 21 days. On day 21, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Open Field Test (OFT), Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) were used to investigate the level of anxiety and depression in animals. In addition between 17(th) and 21(th) days, Morris Water Maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the effect of MPH on spatial learning and memory.

Results: MPH-treated animals indicated a reflective depression and anxiety in a dose-dependent manner in FST, EPM and TST which were significantly different from the control group and also can significantly attenuate the motor activity and anxiety in OFT. Forced exercise by treadmill can attenuate MPH-induced anxiety, depression and motor activity alteration in OFT. MPH also can disturb learning and memory in MWM and forced exercise can neutralize this effect of MPH.

Conclusion: We conclude that forced exercise can be protective in brain against MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition alteration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus