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Neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena extract on learning and memory in a rat model of amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer's disease.

Esfandiary E, Karimipour M, Mardani M, Ghanadian M, Alaei HA, Mohammadnejad D, Esmaeili A - Adv Biomed Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Current medications only slow down the dementia progression and the present treatment one-drug one-target paradigm for anti-AD treatment appears to be clinically unsuccessful.Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed.According to these results, we concluded that R. damascena can reverse behavioral deficits caused by A-β, and may provide a new potential option for prevention and treatment of the cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized clinically by serious impairment in memory and cognition. Current medications only slow down the dementia progression and the present treatment one-drug one-target paradigm for anti-AD treatment appears to be clinically unsuccessful. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. With respect to multifunctional and multitargeted characteristics of Rosa damascena via its effective flavonoids, we investigated the effects of R. damascena extract on behavioral functions in a rat model of amyloid-β (A-β)-induced Alzheimer's disease.

Materials and methods: After preparation of the methanolic extract of the R. damascena, HPLC analysis and toxicity studies, median lethal dose (LD50) and dose levels were determined. For evaluation of baseline training behavioral performance, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used. A-β was injected bilaterally into CA1 area of the hippocampus. Twenty-one days after injection of A-β, the first probe trial of the behavioral tests were used to confirm learning and memory impairment. To examine the potential effects of the extract on behavioral tasks, the second probe trials were performed after one month administration of R. damasena extract.

Results: Results showed that the R. damascena extract significantly improved the spatial and long-term memories in the extract- treated groups in a dose-dependent manner, as in the middle and high doses it had significant effect.

Conclusion: According to these results, we concluded that R. damascena can reverse behavioral deficits caused by A-β, and may provide a new potential option for prevention and treatment of the cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) HPLC chromatogram of quercetin standard at 365 nm; 20 μL of the quercetin standard (Sigma Aldrich, USA) in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quercetin peak appeared at a retention time of 13.64 min. (b) HPLC chromatogram of Rosa damascena extract at 365 nm. After acid hydrolysis of 100 mg of the extract (1 h in 2N HCl, at 95°C), the hydrolyzed flavonoids were extracted through ethyl acetate to 5 mL. Then 20 μL of the sample was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Quercetin peak of the extract appeared at a retention time of 13.48 min. (c): Calibration curve of quercetin using HPLC method and acetonitrile/water as mobile phase with pH adjusted to 2.3 at 365 nm. Using the millennium processing software, the calibration curve was determined by linear regression in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL. The regression equation was y = 86,419x + 7, 94,975
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Figure 3: (a) HPLC chromatogram of quercetin standard at 365 nm; 20 μL of the quercetin standard (Sigma Aldrich, USA) in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quercetin peak appeared at a retention time of 13.64 min. (b) HPLC chromatogram of Rosa damascena extract at 365 nm. After acid hydrolysis of 100 mg of the extract (1 h in 2N HCl, at 95°C), the hydrolyzed flavonoids were extracted through ethyl acetate to 5 mL. Then 20 μL of the sample was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Quercetin peak of the extract appeared at a retention time of 13.48 min. (c): Calibration curve of quercetin using HPLC method and acetonitrile/water as mobile phase with pH adjusted to 2.3 at 365 nm. Using the millennium processing software, the calibration curve was determined by linear regression in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL. The regression equation was y = 86,419x + 7, 94,975

Mentions: Methanolic extraction of the R. damascena was performed and standardized using quercetin as the bioactive marker for standardization of the extract. Quercetin peak of extract appeared at a retention time of 13.48 min and using calibration curve, the extract was standardized to contain 548.89 ± 20.23 mg/100 g of the total quercetin (0.55% w/w) [Figure 3a and b]. By using of millennium processing software, the calibration curve was determined by linear regression in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL. The regression equation was y = 86419x + 794975, where x was the concentration of total quercetin in the extract (μg/mL) with the correlation co-factor (R2) of 0.998 [Figure 3c].[14]


Neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena extract on learning and memory in a rat model of amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer's disease.

Esfandiary E, Karimipour M, Mardani M, Ghanadian M, Alaei HA, Mohammadnejad D, Esmaeili A - Adv Biomed Res (2015)

(a) HPLC chromatogram of quercetin standard at 365 nm; 20 μL of the quercetin standard (Sigma Aldrich, USA) in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quercetin peak appeared at a retention time of 13.64 min. (b) HPLC chromatogram of Rosa damascena extract at 365 nm. After acid hydrolysis of 100 mg of the extract (1 h in 2N HCl, at 95°C), the hydrolyzed flavonoids were extracted through ethyl acetate to 5 mL. Then 20 μL of the sample was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Quercetin peak of the extract appeared at a retention time of 13.48 min. (c): Calibration curve of quercetin using HPLC method and acetonitrile/water as mobile phase with pH adjusted to 2.3 at 365 nm. Using the millennium processing software, the calibration curve was determined by linear regression in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL. The regression equation was y = 86,419x + 7, 94,975
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 3: (a) HPLC chromatogram of quercetin standard at 365 nm; 20 μL of the quercetin standard (Sigma Aldrich, USA) in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quercetin peak appeared at a retention time of 13.64 min. (b) HPLC chromatogram of Rosa damascena extract at 365 nm. After acid hydrolysis of 100 mg of the extract (1 h in 2N HCl, at 95°C), the hydrolyzed flavonoids were extracted through ethyl acetate to 5 mL. Then 20 μL of the sample was injected into a Nova-Pak C18, 3.9 × 150 mm (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using H3PO4 10 mM in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Quercetin peak of the extract appeared at a retention time of 13.48 min. (c): Calibration curve of quercetin using HPLC method and acetonitrile/water as mobile phase with pH adjusted to 2.3 at 365 nm. Using the millennium processing software, the calibration curve was determined by linear regression in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL. The regression equation was y = 86,419x + 7, 94,975
Mentions: Methanolic extraction of the R. damascena was performed and standardized using quercetin as the bioactive marker for standardization of the extract. Quercetin peak of extract appeared at a retention time of 13.48 min and using calibration curve, the extract was standardized to contain 548.89 ± 20.23 mg/100 g of the total quercetin (0.55% w/w) [Figure 3a and b]. By using of millennium processing software, the calibration curve was determined by linear regression in the range of 100–1000 μg/mL. The regression equation was y = 86419x + 794975, where x was the concentration of total quercetin in the extract (μg/mL) with the correlation co-factor (R2) of 0.998 [Figure 3c].[14]

Bottom Line: Current medications only slow down the dementia progression and the present treatment one-drug one-target paradigm for anti-AD treatment appears to be clinically unsuccessful.Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed.According to these results, we concluded that R. damascena can reverse behavioral deficits caused by A-β, and may provide a new potential option for prevention and treatment of the cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized clinically by serious impairment in memory and cognition. Current medications only slow down the dementia progression and the present treatment one-drug one-target paradigm for anti-AD treatment appears to be clinically unsuccessful. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. With respect to multifunctional and multitargeted characteristics of Rosa damascena via its effective flavonoids, we investigated the effects of R. damascena extract on behavioral functions in a rat model of amyloid-β (A-β)-induced Alzheimer's disease.

Materials and methods: After preparation of the methanolic extract of the R. damascena, HPLC analysis and toxicity studies, median lethal dose (LD50) and dose levels were determined. For evaluation of baseline training behavioral performance, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used. A-β was injected bilaterally into CA1 area of the hippocampus. Twenty-one days after injection of A-β, the first probe trial of the behavioral tests were used to confirm learning and memory impairment. To examine the potential effects of the extract on behavioral tasks, the second probe trials were performed after one month administration of R. damasena extract.

Results: Results showed that the R. damascena extract significantly improved the spatial and long-term memories in the extract- treated groups in a dose-dependent manner, as in the middle and high doses it had significant effect.

Conclusion: According to these results, we concluded that R. damascena can reverse behavioral deficits caused by A-β, and may provide a new potential option for prevention and treatment of the cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus