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Facile synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles from Vites vinefera and its cellular internalization against HBL-100 cells.

Amarnath K, Mathew NL, Nellore J, Siddarth CR, Kumar J - Cancer Nanotechnol (2011)

Bottom Line: Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step.In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study.Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dental College & Hospitals, Sathyabama University, Chennai, 600119 Tamil Nadu India.

ABSTRACT

The remarkable health benefits of the chemical cocktails occluded within Vites vinefera (grapes) have been broadly used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. Furthermore, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability on specific functionalization with peptides (GSH) and thiol-containing compounds (lipoic acid) followed by the induction of cell-specific response. In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study. These studies thus signified the cellular internalization of GAuNPs and its conjugates by transmission electron microscopy through endocytosis into cancer cells. Notably, at higher concentration of gold nanoparticles conjugate, there was an asymmetric accumulation of gold nanoparticles in the periphery of the cell nucleus of the HBL-100 cells which was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM images of gold nanoparticles obtained using a GAuNPs, b GSH-GAuNPs, c lipoic acid-GAuNPs
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Fig3: TEM images of gold nanoparticles obtained using a GAuNPs, b GSH-GAuNPs, c lipoic acid-GAuNPs

Mentions: The gold nanoparticles synthesized from grape extract were relatively monodisperse in colloidal solution, which was confirmed by a single peak in the absorbance spectra (Fig. 1). Gold nanoparticles exhibit some special optical properties such as Plasmon resonance, which is primarily a quantum phenomenon operative on the nanoscale. Absorption measurements indicated that the Plasmon resonance wavelength of GAuNPs was 535 nm. As shown in Fig. 1, the peaks 2 and 3 are shifted towards the higher wavelength after capping with glutathione (540–580 nm) and lipoic acid (560–620 nm), respectively. The λmax shift in the absorbance spectra was mainly due to the surface modification of the gold nanoparticles (Figs. 2, 3). Fascinatingly, the surface Plasmon resonance, the major cause for the absorption, may be affected by surface modification with covalent coupling thereby increasing their size (Sheetal et al. 2008). The covalent coupling may also be due to the protective coating of the organic molecule, glutathione—a tripeptide (glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine), which has many binding points for the gold nanoparticles (two carboxylic groups, one thiol group, and three amino groups). More effectively, the thiol group is involved in the attachment with the AuNP. In the case of lipoic acid-capped nanoparticles, the disulfides are reduced by polyphenols to two thiol groups (−S–S– → –SH + −SH), which are involved in the binding of lipoic acid to gold nanoparticles. And the coupling can be extended via either the carboxylic or the amino groups (of glutathione/lipoic acid). It is conceivable that the cocktail of phytochemicals in grapes along with nontoxic antioxidants lipoic acid and GSH are acting synergistically in stabilizing gold nanoparticles from any agglomeration in solution. A similar study by Gautham et al. (2009) created borohydride-reduced AuNPs capped with glutathione and lipoic acid that was covalently linked to horse radish peroxidase, provided some insight in the application of biosensors as tools for diagnostics.Fig. 2


Facile synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles from Vites vinefera and its cellular internalization against HBL-100 cells.

Amarnath K, Mathew NL, Nellore J, Siddarth CR, Kumar J - Cancer Nanotechnol (2011)

TEM images of gold nanoparticles obtained using a GAuNPs, b GSH-GAuNPs, c lipoic acid-GAuNPs
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544069&req=5

Fig3: TEM images of gold nanoparticles obtained using a GAuNPs, b GSH-GAuNPs, c lipoic acid-GAuNPs
Mentions: The gold nanoparticles synthesized from grape extract were relatively monodisperse in colloidal solution, which was confirmed by a single peak in the absorbance spectra (Fig. 1). Gold nanoparticles exhibit some special optical properties such as Plasmon resonance, which is primarily a quantum phenomenon operative on the nanoscale. Absorption measurements indicated that the Plasmon resonance wavelength of GAuNPs was 535 nm. As shown in Fig. 1, the peaks 2 and 3 are shifted towards the higher wavelength after capping with glutathione (540–580 nm) and lipoic acid (560–620 nm), respectively. The λmax shift in the absorbance spectra was mainly due to the surface modification of the gold nanoparticles (Figs. 2, 3). Fascinatingly, the surface Plasmon resonance, the major cause for the absorption, may be affected by surface modification with covalent coupling thereby increasing their size (Sheetal et al. 2008). The covalent coupling may also be due to the protective coating of the organic molecule, glutathione—a tripeptide (glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine), which has many binding points for the gold nanoparticles (two carboxylic groups, one thiol group, and three amino groups). More effectively, the thiol group is involved in the attachment with the AuNP. In the case of lipoic acid-capped nanoparticles, the disulfides are reduced by polyphenols to two thiol groups (−S–S– → –SH + −SH), which are involved in the binding of lipoic acid to gold nanoparticles. And the coupling can be extended via either the carboxylic or the amino groups (of glutathione/lipoic acid). It is conceivable that the cocktail of phytochemicals in grapes along with nontoxic antioxidants lipoic acid and GSH are acting synergistically in stabilizing gold nanoparticles from any agglomeration in solution. A similar study by Gautham et al. (2009) created borohydride-reduced AuNPs capped with glutathione and lipoic acid that was covalently linked to horse radish peroxidase, provided some insight in the application of biosensors as tools for diagnostics.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step.In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study.Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dental College & Hospitals, Sathyabama University, Chennai, 600119 Tamil Nadu India.

ABSTRACT

The remarkable health benefits of the chemical cocktails occluded within Vites vinefera (grapes) have been broadly used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. Furthermore, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability on specific functionalization with peptides (GSH) and thiol-containing compounds (lipoic acid) followed by the induction of cell-specific response. In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study. These studies thus signified the cellular internalization of GAuNPs and its conjugates by transmission electron microscopy through endocytosis into cancer cells. Notably, at higher concentration of gold nanoparticles conjugate, there was an asymmetric accumulation of gold nanoparticles in the periphery of the cell nucleus of the HBL-100 cells which was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus