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Facile synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles from Vites vinefera and its cellular internalization against HBL-100 cells.

Amarnath K, Mathew NL, Nellore J, Siddarth CR, Kumar J - Cancer Nanotechnol (2011)

Bottom Line: Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step.In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study.Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dental College & Hospitals, Sathyabama University, Chennai, 600119 Tamil Nadu India.

ABSTRACT

The remarkable health benefits of the chemical cocktails occluded within Vites vinefera (grapes) have been broadly used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. Furthermore, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability on specific functionalization with peptides (GSH) and thiol-containing compounds (lipoic acid) followed by the induction of cell-specific response. In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study. These studies thus signified the cellular internalization of GAuNPs and its conjugates by transmission electron microscopy through endocytosis into cancer cells. Notably, at higher concentration of gold nanoparticles conjugate, there was an asymmetric accumulation of gold nanoparticles in the periphery of the cell nucleus of the HBL-100 cells which was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

UV–visible spectroscopic analysis of 1 GAuNPs, 2 GSH, and 3 lipoic acid-stabilized GAuNPs 1 the blue line indicates the peak at a wave length of 500–550 nm fir GAuNPs, 2 the dashed line indicates the peak at a wave length of 550–600 nm for GSH-GAuNPs, 3 the green dotted line indicates the peak at a wave length of 600–650 nm for LA-GAuNPs. The beakers a, b, and c imply the color change after the addition of auro chloric acid to grape extract, GSH, and lipoic acid a AUNPs synthesized from grape extract, b GAuNPs stabilized and capped with glutathione, c GAuNPs stabilized and capped with lipoic acid
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Fig1: UV–visible spectroscopic analysis of 1 GAuNPs, 2 GSH, and 3 lipoic acid-stabilized GAuNPs 1 the blue line indicates the peak at a wave length of 500–550 nm fir GAuNPs, 2 the dashed line indicates the peak at a wave length of 550–600 nm for GSH-GAuNPs, 3 the green dotted line indicates the peak at a wave length of 600–650 nm for LA-GAuNPs. The beakers a, b, and c imply the color change after the addition of auro chloric acid to grape extract, GSH, and lipoic acid a AUNPs synthesized from grape extract, b GAuNPs stabilized and capped with glutathione, c GAuNPs stabilized and capped with lipoic acid

Mentions: Figure 1, a–c depicts the change in color of GAuNPs before and after capping. The color of the grape extract changed pink to wine red (1a), to blue upon addition of glutathione (1b), and to dark blue after capping with lipoic acid (1c). Synthetic conditions have been optimized for the quantitative large-scale conversions of HAuCl4 to the corresponding AuNPs using grape extract. The foremost phytochemicals present in grape extract consist of water-soluble catechins (catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, etc.,) and thearubigins which are oligomers of catechins of unknown structure. As the generation of AuNPs using grape extract involves aqueous media, the water-soluble phytochemicals of grape extract may be playing a major role in the overall reduction reactions of HAuCl4. Interestingly, the systematic investigation of Satish et al. (2009) granted the role of polyphenols (catechins and theaflavins) for the generation and stabilization of AuNPs through independent experiments. Normally, thiols containing organic compounds are employed to stabilize AuNPs against agglomeration and strong interaction (Brust et al. 1994). It has been shown that all the catechins act as outstanding reducing agents to reduce the Au (III) to the corresponding gold nanoparticles (Satish et al. 2009). The nanoparticles thus generated were coated with GSH and lipoic acid stabilizing agent and showed significant stability. These experiments have decidedly confirmed that catechin and epigallocatechin gallate hand out dual roles as reduction and stabilizing agents, whereas epigallocatechin and epicatechin can be used only for the reduction of gold salts and require GSH and lipoic acid as an external stabilizing mediator. Thus, our study provided an evidence for the better stability by GSH and lipoic acid when coupled to biomolecules to obtain new delivery platforms (Roux et al. 2005).Fig. 1


Facile synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles from Vites vinefera and its cellular internalization against HBL-100 cells.

Amarnath K, Mathew NL, Nellore J, Siddarth CR, Kumar J - Cancer Nanotechnol (2011)

UV–visible spectroscopic analysis of 1 GAuNPs, 2 GSH, and 3 lipoic acid-stabilized GAuNPs 1 the blue line indicates the peak at a wave length of 500–550 nm fir GAuNPs, 2 the dashed line indicates the peak at a wave length of 550–600 nm for GSH-GAuNPs, 3 the green dotted line indicates the peak at a wave length of 600–650 nm for LA-GAuNPs. The beakers a, b, and c imply the color change after the addition of auro chloric acid to grape extract, GSH, and lipoic acid a AUNPs synthesized from grape extract, b GAuNPs stabilized and capped with glutathione, c GAuNPs stabilized and capped with lipoic acid
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544069&req=5

Fig1: UV–visible spectroscopic analysis of 1 GAuNPs, 2 GSH, and 3 lipoic acid-stabilized GAuNPs 1 the blue line indicates the peak at a wave length of 500–550 nm fir GAuNPs, 2 the dashed line indicates the peak at a wave length of 550–600 nm for GSH-GAuNPs, 3 the green dotted line indicates the peak at a wave length of 600–650 nm for LA-GAuNPs. The beakers a, b, and c imply the color change after the addition of auro chloric acid to grape extract, GSH, and lipoic acid a AUNPs synthesized from grape extract, b GAuNPs stabilized and capped with glutathione, c GAuNPs stabilized and capped with lipoic acid
Mentions: Figure 1, a–c depicts the change in color of GAuNPs before and after capping. The color of the grape extract changed pink to wine red (1a), to blue upon addition of glutathione (1b), and to dark blue after capping with lipoic acid (1c). Synthetic conditions have been optimized for the quantitative large-scale conversions of HAuCl4 to the corresponding AuNPs using grape extract. The foremost phytochemicals present in grape extract consist of water-soluble catechins (catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, etc.,) and thearubigins which are oligomers of catechins of unknown structure. As the generation of AuNPs using grape extract involves aqueous media, the water-soluble phytochemicals of grape extract may be playing a major role in the overall reduction reactions of HAuCl4. Interestingly, the systematic investigation of Satish et al. (2009) granted the role of polyphenols (catechins and theaflavins) for the generation and stabilization of AuNPs through independent experiments. Normally, thiols containing organic compounds are employed to stabilize AuNPs against agglomeration and strong interaction (Brust et al. 1994). It has been shown that all the catechins act as outstanding reducing agents to reduce the Au (III) to the corresponding gold nanoparticles (Satish et al. 2009). The nanoparticles thus generated were coated with GSH and lipoic acid stabilizing agent and showed significant stability. These experiments have decidedly confirmed that catechin and epigallocatechin gallate hand out dual roles as reduction and stabilizing agents, whereas epigallocatechin and epicatechin can be used only for the reduction of gold salts and require GSH and lipoic acid as an external stabilizing mediator. Thus, our study provided an evidence for the better stability by GSH and lipoic acid when coupled to biomolecules to obtain new delivery platforms (Roux et al. 2005).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step.In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study.Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dental College & Hospitals, Sathyabama University, Chennai, 600119 Tamil Nadu India.

ABSTRACT

The remarkable health benefits of the chemical cocktails occluded within Vites vinefera (grapes) have been broadly used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of gold nanoparticles with the phytochemicals present in grapes, which serve a dual role as synergistic reducing agents to reduce gold salts into gold nanoparticles and also as stabilizers to provide a robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. Furthermore, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability on specific functionalization with peptides (GSH) and thiol-containing compounds (lipoic acid) followed by the induction of cell-specific response. In addition, the grape-generated gold nanoparticles (GAuNPs, GSH-GAuNPs, LA-GAuNPs) have demonstrated remarkable affinity towards human breast cancer cells (HBL-100) in the present study. These studies thus signified the cellular internalization of GAuNPs and its conjugates by transmission electron microscopy through endocytosis into cancer cells. Notably, at higher concentration of gold nanoparticles conjugate, there was an asymmetric accumulation of gold nanoparticles in the periphery of the cell nucleus of the HBL-100 cells which was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Other than gold salts, no "manmade" chemicals are used in this truly biogenic, green nanotechnological process which thereby paves the way for outstanding opening for their application in molecular imaging and cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus