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High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization.

Saidaminov MI, Abdelhady AL, Murali B, Alarousu E, Burlakov VM, Peng W, Dursun I, Wang L, He Y, Maculan G, Goriely A, Wu T, Mohammed OF, Bakr OM - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures.The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters.The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Solar and Photovoltaics Engineering Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA = CH3NH3(+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Carrier lifetime measurements and I–V traces.(a,b) Transient absorption of (a) MAPbBr3 and (b) MAPbI3 crystals. (c,d) I–V of perovskite crystals exhibiting different regions obtained from the log I versus log V plots. The regions are marked for Ohmic (IαVn=1), TFL (IαVn>3) and Child's regime (IαVn=2). The trap densities were calculated from the Child's regime shown in (c,d).
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f4: Carrier lifetime measurements and I–V traces.(a,b) Transient absorption of (a) MAPbBr3 and (b) MAPbI3 crystals. (c,d) I–V of perovskite crystals exhibiting different regions obtained from the log I versus log V plots. The regions are marked for Ohmic (IαVn=1), TFL (IαVn>3) and Child's regime (IαVn=2). The trap densities were calculated from the Child's regime shown in (c,d).

Mentions: The carrier mobility μ (μ=μp≈μn, where μp and μn are hole and electron mobility, respectively, as MAPbX3 is an intrinsic semiconductor)26 of MAPbX3 (X=Br−, I−) was estimated from the dark current–voltage (I–V)characteristics, following the standard space charge-limited current model. The I–V traces showed the Mott–Gurney's power law dependence, for instance, an Ohmic region at the lower and a space charge-limited current model at higher bias. A quadratic dependence of the transition from the Ohmic to Child's law through the trap filled limit (TFL) was observed in both MAPbBr3 and MAPbI3 crystals. The carrier mobilities and the trap densities (ntraps) were estimated to be 24.0 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 3 × 1010 cm−3 for MAPbBr3 crystals (Fig. 4c), as well as 67.2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 1.4 × 1010 cm−3 for MAPbI3 crystals (Fig. 4d).


High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization.

Saidaminov MI, Abdelhady AL, Murali B, Alarousu E, Burlakov VM, Peng W, Dursun I, Wang L, He Y, Maculan G, Goriely A, Wu T, Mohammed OF, Bakr OM - Nat Commun (2015)

Carrier lifetime measurements and I–V traces.(a,b) Transient absorption of (a) MAPbBr3 and (b) MAPbI3 crystals. (c,d) I–V of perovskite crystals exhibiting different regions obtained from the log I versus log V plots. The regions are marked for Ohmic (IαVn=1), TFL (IαVn>3) and Child's regime (IαVn=2). The trap densities were calculated from the Child's regime shown in (c,d).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544059&req=5

f4: Carrier lifetime measurements and I–V traces.(a,b) Transient absorption of (a) MAPbBr3 and (b) MAPbI3 crystals. (c,d) I–V of perovskite crystals exhibiting different regions obtained from the log I versus log V plots. The regions are marked for Ohmic (IαVn=1), TFL (IαVn>3) and Child's regime (IαVn=2). The trap densities were calculated from the Child's regime shown in (c,d).
Mentions: The carrier mobility μ (μ=μp≈μn, where μp and μn are hole and electron mobility, respectively, as MAPbX3 is an intrinsic semiconductor)26 of MAPbX3 (X=Br−, I−) was estimated from the dark current–voltage (I–V)characteristics, following the standard space charge-limited current model. The I–V traces showed the Mott–Gurney's power law dependence, for instance, an Ohmic region at the lower and a space charge-limited current model at higher bias. A quadratic dependence of the transition from the Ohmic to Child's law through the trap filled limit (TFL) was observed in both MAPbBr3 and MAPbI3 crystals. The carrier mobilities and the trap densities (ntraps) were estimated to be 24.0 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 3 × 1010 cm−3 for MAPbBr3 crystals (Fig. 4c), as well as 67.2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 1.4 × 1010 cm−3 for MAPbI3 crystals (Fig. 4d).

Bottom Line: The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures.The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters.The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Solar and Photovoltaics Engineering Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA = CH3NH3(+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus