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Sonorensin: A new bacteriocin with potential of an anti-biofilm agent and a food biopreservative.

Chopra L, Singh G, Kumar Jena K, Sahoo DK - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Sonorensin showed marked inhibition activity against biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus.Fluorescence and electron microscopy suggested that growth inhibition occurred because of increased membrane permeability.The biopreservative effect of sonorensin coated film showing growth inhibition of spoilage bacteria in chicken meat and tomato samples demonstrated the potential of sonorensin as an alternative to current antibiotics/ preservatives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biochemical Engineering Research and Process Development Centre, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector-39A Chandigarh; 160036, India.

ABSTRACT
The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has led to exploration of alternative therapeutic agents such as ribosomally synthesized bacterial peptides known as bacteriocins. Biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. Bacteria in biofilm can be upto thousand times more resistant to antibiotics than the same bacteria circulating in a planktonic state. In this study, sonorensin, predicted to belong to the heterocycloanthracin subfamily of bacteriocins, was found to be effectively killing active and non-multiplying cells of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sonorensin showed marked inhibition activity against biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence and electron microscopy suggested that growth inhibition occurred because of increased membrane permeability. Low density polyethylene film coated with sonorensin was found to effectively control the growth of food spoilage bacteria like Listeria monocytogenes and S. aureus. The biopreservative effect of sonorensin coated film showing growth inhibition of spoilage bacteria in chicken meat and tomato samples demonstrated the potential of sonorensin as an alternative to current antibiotics/ preservatives.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying bacteria.(a) Comparative growth curves of active (open symbols) and non-multiplying (filled symbols) cells of E. coli (squares) and S. aureus (triangles). Cell viability was used as a measure of the effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying cells of (b) E. coli and (c) S. aureus. The CFU count from the untreated sample was taken as 100% in the cell viability calculations. An extended lag phase of non- multiplying cells compared to their vegetative counterparts (a). The sensitivity to nisin and tolerance to ampicillin confirmed non-multiplying state of cells. Sonorensin was effective against non-multiplying cells of both E. coli (b) and S. aureus (c,d) Sonorensin toxicity to mammalian cells was assayed by measuring its haemolytic activity. Triton X-100 and PBS served as controls. Sonorensin, at concentrations toxic to vegetative and dormant cells of E. coli and S. aureus, had virtually no effect on RBCs and only 1.7 ± 0.04% haemolysis was observed at higher concentrations of sonorensin. All the experiments were repeated three times in triplicate. The results were presented as mean ± SD and differences between the control and treated samples were statistically significant (n = 3) (p < 0.005).
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f3: Effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying bacteria.(a) Comparative growth curves of active (open symbols) and non-multiplying (filled symbols) cells of E. coli (squares) and S. aureus (triangles). Cell viability was used as a measure of the effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying cells of (b) E. coli and (c) S. aureus. The CFU count from the untreated sample was taken as 100% in the cell viability calculations. An extended lag phase of non- multiplying cells compared to their vegetative counterparts (a). The sensitivity to nisin and tolerance to ampicillin confirmed non-multiplying state of cells. Sonorensin was effective against non-multiplying cells of both E. coli (b) and S. aureus (c,d) Sonorensin toxicity to mammalian cells was assayed by measuring its haemolytic activity. Triton X-100 and PBS served as controls. Sonorensin, at concentrations toxic to vegetative and dormant cells of E. coli and S. aureus, had virtually no effect on RBCs and only 1.7 ± 0.04% haemolysis was observed at higher concentrations of sonorensin. All the experiments were repeated three times in triplicate. The results were presented as mean ± SD and differences between the control and treated samples were statistically significant (n = 3) (p < 0.005).

Mentions: Sonorensin was investigated for its efficacy against bacterial cells in dormant stage. Escherichia coli and S. aureus were used as indicator strains to produce long duration stationary phase cells of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. An extented lag phase compared to their vegetative counterparts in a regrowth experiment (Fig. 3a), sensitivity to nisin (Fig. 3b,c) and tolerance to ampicillin (Fig. 3b,c) confirmed their non-multiplying state. Susceptibility of vegetative cells of both E. coli and S. aureus to ampicillin is shown in Supplementary Fig. S1 online. The revived cultures regained sensitivity to antibiotics signifying that no further antibiotic resistance was attained through any genetic alteration during dormancy. Sonorensin was found to kill non-multiplying cells of both E. coli and S. aureus (Fig. 3b,c). On comparing its antimicrobial activity with nisin, it was observed that sonorensin was as effective as nisin in killing non-multiplying cells of S. aureus and E. coli.


Sonorensin: A new bacteriocin with potential of an anti-biofilm agent and a food biopreservative.

Chopra L, Singh G, Kumar Jena K, Sahoo DK - Sci Rep (2015)

Effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying bacteria.(a) Comparative growth curves of active (open symbols) and non-multiplying (filled symbols) cells of E. coli (squares) and S. aureus (triangles). Cell viability was used as a measure of the effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying cells of (b) E. coli and (c) S. aureus. The CFU count from the untreated sample was taken as 100% in the cell viability calculations. An extended lag phase of non- multiplying cells compared to their vegetative counterparts (a). The sensitivity to nisin and tolerance to ampicillin confirmed non-multiplying state of cells. Sonorensin was effective against non-multiplying cells of both E. coli (b) and S. aureus (c,d) Sonorensin toxicity to mammalian cells was assayed by measuring its haemolytic activity. Triton X-100 and PBS served as controls. Sonorensin, at concentrations toxic to vegetative and dormant cells of E. coli and S. aureus, had virtually no effect on RBCs and only 1.7 ± 0.04% haemolysis was observed at higher concentrations of sonorensin. All the experiments were repeated three times in triplicate. The results were presented as mean ± SD and differences between the control and treated samples were statistically significant (n = 3) (p < 0.005).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544038&req=5

f3: Effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying bacteria.(a) Comparative growth curves of active (open symbols) and non-multiplying (filled symbols) cells of E. coli (squares) and S. aureus (triangles). Cell viability was used as a measure of the effect of sonorensin on non-multiplying cells of (b) E. coli and (c) S. aureus. The CFU count from the untreated sample was taken as 100% in the cell viability calculations. An extended lag phase of non- multiplying cells compared to their vegetative counterparts (a). The sensitivity to nisin and tolerance to ampicillin confirmed non-multiplying state of cells. Sonorensin was effective against non-multiplying cells of both E. coli (b) and S. aureus (c,d) Sonorensin toxicity to mammalian cells was assayed by measuring its haemolytic activity. Triton X-100 and PBS served as controls. Sonorensin, at concentrations toxic to vegetative and dormant cells of E. coli and S. aureus, had virtually no effect on RBCs and only 1.7 ± 0.04% haemolysis was observed at higher concentrations of sonorensin. All the experiments were repeated three times in triplicate. The results were presented as mean ± SD and differences between the control and treated samples were statistically significant (n = 3) (p < 0.005).
Mentions: Sonorensin was investigated for its efficacy against bacterial cells in dormant stage. Escherichia coli and S. aureus were used as indicator strains to produce long duration stationary phase cells of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. An extented lag phase compared to their vegetative counterparts in a regrowth experiment (Fig. 3a), sensitivity to nisin (Fig. 3b,c) and tolerance to ampicillin (Fig. 3b,c) confirmed their non-multiplying state. Susceptibility of vegetative cells of both E. coli and S. aureus to ampicillin is shown in Supplementary Fig. S1 online. The revived cultures regained sensitivity to antibiotics signifying that no further antibiotic resistance was attained through any genetic alteration during dormancy. Sonorensin was found to kill non-multiplying cells of both E. coli and S. aureus (Fig. 3b,c). On comparing its antimicrobial activity with nisin, it was observed that sonorensin was as effective as nisin in killing non-multiplying cells of S. aureus and E. coli.

Bottom Line: Sonorensin showed marked inhibition activity against biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus.Fluorescence and electron microscopy suggested that growth inhibition occurred because of increased membrane permeability.The biopreservative effect of sonorensin coated film showing growth inhibition of spoilage bacteria in chicken meat and tomato samples demonstrated the potential of sonorensin as an alternative to current antibiotics/ preservatives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biochemical Engineering Research and Process Development Centre, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector-39A Chandigarh; 160036, India.

ABSTRACT
The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has led to exploration of alternative therapeutic agents such as ribosomally synthesized bacterial peptides known as bacteriocins. Biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. Bacteria in biofilm can be upto thousand times more resistant to antibiotics than the same bacteria circulating in a planktonic state. In this study, sonorensin, predicted to belong to the heterocycloanthracin subfamily of bacteriocins, was found to be effectively killing active and non-multiplying cells of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sonorensin showed marked inhibition activity against biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence and electron microscopy suggested that growth inhibition occurred because of increased membrane permeability. Low density polyethylene film coated with sonorensin was found to effectively control the growth of food spoilage bacteria like Listeria monocytogenes and S. aureus. The biopreservative effect of sonorensin coated film showing growth inhibition of spoilage bacteria in chicken meat and tomato samples demonstrated the potential of sonorensin as an alternative to current antibiotics/ preservatives.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus