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Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour.

Fedurek P, Slocombe KE, Hartel JA, Zuberbühler K - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity.Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations.Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Signalling plays an important role in facilitating and maintaining affiliative or cooperative interactions in social animals. Social grooming in primates is an example of an interaction that requires coordination between partners but little is known about communicative behaviours facilitating this activity. In this study, we analysed the communication of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, as they entered and maintained a naturally occurring cooperative interaction: social grooming. We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity. Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations. Lip-smacks were more likely to be produced when the risk of termination of the interaction by the recipient was high, for instance when grooming vulnerable body parts. Groomers were also more likely to produce lip-smacks during face-to-face grooming where the visual aspect of the signal could be perceived. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

No MeSH data available.


The outline of the elements within a grooming bout used during data collection and analysis.A-K: grooming bout; A: start of a grooming bout; K: end of a grooming bout; G: role reversal; A-C, C-E: complete one-minute periods of individual A grooming individual B; G-I complete one-minute period of individual B grooming individual A; A-B, C-D, E-F: 10 s periods sampled of individual A’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses; G-H, I-J: 10 s periods sampled of individual B’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses.
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f4: The outline of the elements within a grooming bout used during data collection and analysis.A-K: grooming bout; A: start of a grooming bout; K: end of a grooming bout; G: role reversal; A-C, C-E: complete one-minute periods of individual A grooming individual B; G-I complete one-minute period of individual B grooming individual A; A-B, C-D, E-F: 10 s periods sampled of individual A’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses; G-H, I-J: 10 s periods sampled of individual B’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses.

Mentions: When the focal animal was involved in grooming with another individual we recorded the time (in seconds) of the start and end of a grooming bout, the identity of the individual initiating a grooming bout and the identity of the partner. To minimise the problem of temporal non-independence of the data-points, we recorded details on grooming and lip-smacking from the first 10 s of every minute during the bout (Fig. 4). During these 10 s periods of a grooming bout, we recorded information including: (i) the identity of the individuals providing and receiving grooming, (ii) whether or not (0/1) the provider of grooming lip-smacked, (iii) whether or not the groomer was in front of the groomee (0/1) and (iv) the body part (i.e., the head, ano-genital areas, the chest/front, the back and the limbs) that was being groomed. Since only providers but not receivers of grooming lip-smacked (and there was no reciprocation of groomers’ lip-smacks by groomees), all data on lip-smacking were collected from providers of grooming. We classified the head and ano-genital areas (i.e., sensitive body areas containing vital organs, where receiving aggression could result in life threatening or debilitating injuries) as vulnerable body parts, whereas the chest, the back and the limbs as non-vulnerable body parts. If during the sampled 10 s period the groomer switched from grooming one body part to another, we recorded the body part that was being groomed longer. After a role reversal, we collected data during the first 10 s following the role reversal, followed by further 10 s samples throughout the following 1 min blocks (Fig. 4).


Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour.

Fedurek P, Slocombe KE, Hartel JA, Zuberbühler K - Sci Rep (2015)

The outline of the elements within a grooming bout used during data collection and analysis.A-K: grooming bout; A: start of a grooming bout; K: end of a grooming bout; G: role reversal; A-C, C-E: complete one-minute periods of individual A grooming individual B; G-I complete one-minute period of individual B grooming individual A; A-B, C-D, E-F: 10 s periods sampled of individual A’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses; G-H, I-J: 10 s periods sampled of individual B’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544027&req=5

f4: The outline of the elements within a grooming bout used during data collection and analysis.A-K: grooming bout; A: start of a grooming bout; K: end of a grooming bout; G: role reversal; A-C, C-E: complete one-minute periods of individual A grooming individual B; G-I complete one-minute period of individual B grooming individual A; A-B, C-D, E-F: 10 s periods sampled of individual A’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses; G-H, I-J: 10 s periods sampled of individual B’s behaviour as groomer for the analyses.
Mentions: When the focal animal was involved in grooming with another individual we recorded the time (in seconds) of the start and end of a grooming bout, the identity of the individual initiating a grooming bout and the identity of the partner. To minimise the problem of temporal non-independence of the data-points, we recorded details on grooming and lip-smacking from the first 10 s of every minute during the bout (Fig. 4). During these 10 s periods of a grooming bout, we recorded information including: (i) the identity of the individuals providing and receiving grooming, (ii) whether or not (0/1) the provider of grooming lip-smacked, (iii) whether or not the groomer was in front of the groomee (0/1) and (iv) the body part (i.e., the head, ano-genital areas, the chest/front, the back and the limbs) that was being groomed. Since only providers but not receivers of grooming lip-smacked (and there was no reciprocation of groomers’ lip-smacks by groomees), all data on lip-smacking were collected from providers of grooming. We classified the head and ano-genital areas (i.e., sensitive body areas containing vital organs, where receiving aggression could result in life threatening or debilitating injuries) as vulnerable body parts, whereas the chest, the back and the limbs as non-vulnerable body parts. If during the sampled 10 s period the groomer switched from grooming one body part to another, we recorded the body part that was being groomed longer. After a role reversal, we collected data during the first 10 s following the role reversal, followed by further 10 s samples throughout the following 1 min blocks (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity.Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations.Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Signalling plays an important role in facilitating and maintaining affiliative or cooperative interactions in social animals. Social grooming in primates is an example of an interaction that requires coordination between partners but little is known about communicative behaviours facilitating this activity. In this study, we analysed the communication of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, as they entered and maintained a naturally occurring cooperative interaction: social grooming. We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity. Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations. Lip-smacks were more likely to be produced when the risk of termination of the interaction by the recipient was high, for instance when grooming vulnerable body parts. Groomers were also more likely to produce lip-smacks during face-to-face grooming where the visual aspect of the signal could be perceived. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

No MeSH data available.