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Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour.

Fedurek P, Slocombe KE, Hartel JA, Zuberbühler K - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity.Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations.Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Signalling plays an important role in facilitating and maintaining affiliative or cooperative interactions in social animals. Social grooming in primates is an example of an interaction that requires coordination between partners but little is known about communicative behaviours facilitating this activity. In this study, we analysed the communication of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, as they entered and maintained a naturally occurring cooperative interaction: social grooming. We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity. Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations. Lip-smacks were more likely to be produced when the risk of termination of the interaction by the recipient was high, for instance when grooming vulnerable body parts. Groomers were also more likely to produce lip-smacks during face-to-face grooming where the visual aspect of the signal could be perceived. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

No MeSH data available.


The relationship between lip-smacking and grooming bout duration (LMM, ***P < 0.001; Random effects: Groomer ID and Groomee ID; Error bars represent 1 SD).
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f1: The relationship between lip-smacking and grooming bout duration (LMM, ***P < 0.001; Random effects: Groomer ID and Groomee ID; Error bars represent 1 SD).

Mentions: Grooming bouts with lip-smacks given by the groomer in the first 10 s of the bout were significantly longer than those in which no lip-smacks occurred during the same period (β ± SE = 235.81 ± 71.79, z = 3.28, P = 0.001, Fig. 1). Since reciprocated grooming bouts were longer than unreciprocated ones (β ± SE = 515.30 ± 80.66, z = 6.39, P < 0.001), we tested whether lip-smacking predicted grooming duration in both reciprocated and unreciprocated grooming bouts. Both unreciprocated (β ± SE = 194.47 ± 55.42, z = 3.51, P < 0.001) and, although not significantly (β ± SE = 441.65 ± 240.44, z = 1.84, P = 0.066), reciprocated grooming bouts were longer if there was a lip-smack during the first 10 s of the bout.


Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour.

Fedurek P, Slocombe KE, Hartel JA, Zuberbühler K - Sci Rep (2015)

The relationship between lip-smacking and grooming bout duration (LMM, ***P < 0.001; Random effects: Groomer ID and Groomee ID; Error bars represent 1 SD).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544027&req=5

f1: The relationship between lip-smacking and grooming bout duration (LMM, ***P < 0.001; Random effects: Groomer ID and Groomee ID; Error bars represent 1 SD).
Mentions: Grooming bouts with lip-smacks given by the groomer in the first 10 s of the bout were significantly longer than those in which no lip-smacks occurred during the same period (β ± SE = 235.81 ± 71.79, z = 3.28, P = 0.001, Fig. 1). Since reciprocated grooming bouts were longer than unreciprocated ones (β ± SE = 515.30 ± 80.66, z = 6.39, P < 0.001), we tested whether lip-smacking predicted grooming duration in both reciprocated and unreciprocated grooming bouts. Both unreciprocated (β ± SE = 194.47 ± 55.42, z = 3.51, P < 0.001) and, although not significantly (β ± SE = 441.65 ± 240.44, z = 1.84, P = 0.066), reciprocated grooming bouts were longer if there was a lip-smack during the first 10 s of the bout.

Bottom Line: We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity.Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations.Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Signalling plays an important role in facilitating and maintaining affiliative or cooperative interactions in social animals. Social grooming in primates is an example of an interaction that requires coordination between partners but little is known about communicative behaviours facilitating this activity. In this study, we analysed the communication of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, as they entered and maintained a naturally occurring cooperative interaction: social grooming. We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity. Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations. Lip-smacks were more likely to be produced when the risk of termination of the interaction by the recipient was high, for instance when grooming vulnerable body parts. Groomers were also more likely to produce lip-smacks during face-to-face grooming where the visual aspect of the signal could be perceived. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees.

No MeSH data available.