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Population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras.

Ito H, Langenhorst T, Ogden R, Inoue-Murayama M - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra.Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations.Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, 2-24 Tanaka-Sekiden-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8203, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Zebras are members of the horse family. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra Equus quagga, the Grevy's zebra E. grevyi and the mountain zebra E. zebra. The Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered, and hybridization between the Grevy's zebra and the plains zebra has been documented, leading to a requirement for conservation genetic management within and between the species. We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra. A range of standard indices were employed to examine population genetic diversity and hybrid populations between Grevy's and plains zebra were simulated to investigate subspecies and hybrid detection. Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations. Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias. Species and subspecies differentiation were clearly demonstrated and F1 and F2 hybrids were correctly identified. These findings provide insights into captive population genetic diversity in zebras and support the use of these markers for identifying hybrids, including the known hybrid issue in the endangered Grevy's zebra.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure of the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and their hybrids (F1, F2, and back cross) based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and hybridization (F1, F2, and back cross). Percentages of variation explained by the first 2 axes were 18.4% and 3.8%, respectively.
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f3: (a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure of the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and their hybrids (F1, F2, and back cross) based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and hybridization (F1, F2, and back cross). Percentages of variation explained by the first 2 axes were 18.4% and 3.8%, respectively.

Mentions: The results of STRUCTURE analysis and PCoA in the six populations comprised of two pure species (Grevy’s zebra and Grant’s zebra) and four hybridized populations (Grevy’s zebra x Grant’s zebra = F1; F1 × F1 = F2; F1 × Grevy’s zebra backcross = BxGy, F1 × Grant’s zebra = BxGt) indicate a sharp distinction between the pure species and two of the hybridized populations (F1 and F2 populations). As expected,the backcrossed populations were less clearly differentiated, with the F1 x Grant’s zebra backcross partly overlapping with Grant’s zebra (Fig. 3). STRUCTURE results for assignment to Grevy’s zebra for actual and simulated individuals were as follows: For Grevy’s zebra Qi (population average) and qi (individual range) scores were: Grevy’s zebra 0.986 (0.954–0.991); Grant’s zebra, 0.016 (0.009–0.024); simulated F1s, 0.404 (0.347–0.531); F1 x Grevy’s zebra backcrosses, 0.681 (0.493–0.826); F1 x Grant’s zebra backcrosses, 0.125 (0.034–0.275); and in simulated F2s, 0.406 (0.243–0.539).


Population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras.

Ito H, Langenhorst T, Ogden R, Inoue-Murayama M - Sci Rep (2015)

(a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure of the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and their hybrids (F1, F2, and back cross) based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and hybridization (F1, F2, and back cross). Percentages of variation explained by the first 2 axes were 18.4% and 3.8%, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544005&req=5

f3: (a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure of the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and their hybrids (F1, F2, and back cross) based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in the Grevy’s zebra, Grant’s zebra and hybridization (F1, F2, and back cross). Percentages of variation explained by the first 2 axes were 18.4% and 3.8%, respectively.
Mentions: The results of STRUCTURE analysis and PCoA in the six populations comprised of two pure species (Grevy’s zebra and Grant’s zebra) and four hybridized populations (Grevy’s zebra x Grant’s zebra = F1; F1 × F1 = F2; F1 × Grevy’s zebra backcross = BxGy, F1 × Grant’s zebra = BxGt) indicate a sharp distinction between the pure species and two of the hybridized populations (F1 and F2 populations). As expected,the backcrossed populations were less clearly differentiated, with the F1 x Grant’s zebra backcross partly overlapping with Grant’s zebra (Fig. 3). STRUCTURE results for assignment to Grevy’s zebra for actual and simulated individuals were as follows: For Grevy’s zebra Qi (population average) and qi (individual range) scores were: Grevy’s zebra 0.986 (0.954–0.991); Grant’s zebra, 0.016 (0.009–0.024); simulated F1s, 0.404 (0.347–0.531); F1 x Grevy’s zebra backcrosses, 0.681 (0.493–0.826); F1 x Grant’s zebra backcrosses, 0.125 (0.034–0.275); and in simulated F2s, 0.406 (0.243–0.539).

Bottom Line: We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra.Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations.Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, 2-24 Tanaka-Sekiden-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8203, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Zebras are members of the horse family. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra Equus quagga, the Grevy's zebra E. grevyi and the mountain zebra E. zebra. The Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered, and hybridization between the Grevy's zebra and the plains zebra has been documented, leading to a requirement for conservation genetic management within and between the species. We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra. A range of standard indices were employed to examine population genetic diversity and hybrid populations between Grevy's and plains zebra were simulated to investigate subspecies and hybrid detection. Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations. Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias. Species and subspecies differentiation were clearly demonstrated and F1 and F2 hybrids were correctly identified. These findings provide insights into captive population genetic diversity in zebras and support the use of these markers for identifying hybrids, including the known hybrid issue in the endangered Grevy's zebra.

No MeSH data available.