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Population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras.

Ito H, Langenhorst T, Ogden R, Inoue-Murayama M - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra.Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations.Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, 2-24 Tanaka-Sekiden-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8203, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Zebras are members of the horse family. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra Equus quagga, the Grevy's zebra E. grevyi and the mountain zebra E. zebra. The Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered, and hybridization between the Grevy's zebra and the plains zebra has been documented, leading to a requirement for conservation genetic management within and between the species. We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra. A range of standard indices were employed to examine population genetic diversity and hybrid populations between Grevy's and plains zebra were simulated to investigate subspecies and hybrid detection. Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations. Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias. Species and subspecies differentiation were clearly demonstrated and F1 and F2 hybrids were correctly identified. These findings provide insights into captive population genetic diversity in zebras and support the use of these markers for identifying hybrids, including the known hybrid issue in the endangered Grevy's zebra.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure showing differentiation of three zebra species based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in three zebra species.
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f1: (a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure showing differentiation of three zebra species based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in three zebra species.

Mentions: The clustering of three zebra species observed in the STRUCTURE analysis (Fig. 1a) and principal component analysis (Fig. 1b) demonstrates clear separation of the three species using microsatellite data. In STRUCTURE analysis, greatest support was found for K = 2 clusters, resulting in the separation of Grevy’s zebra from the other two zebra species (Fig. 1a); at K = 3 (Fig. 1a), plains zebra and mountain zebra were subsequently differentiated unambiguously. The confidence in individual assignment was high, with the Grevy’s zebra assigned to cluster I with average proportion of membership QI = 99.6%, plains zebra assigned to cluster II with average proportion of membership QII = 99.4%, and mountains zebra assigned to cluster III with average proportion of membership QIII = 99.5%. Additionally, PCoA separated the three species clearly. Percentages of variation explained by the first 2 axes were 22.4% and 7.0%, respectively.


Population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras.

Ito H, Langenhorst T, Ogden R, Inoue-Murayama M - Sci Rep (2015)

(a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure showing differentiation of three zebra species based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in three zebra species.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4544005&req=5

f1: (a) Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure showing differentiation of three zebra species based on 28 microsatellite loci. (b) First and second components of a principal coordinate analysis of 28 microsatellite loci in three zebra species.
Mentions: The clustering of three zebra species observed in the STRUCTURE analysis (Fig. 1a) and principal component analysis (Fig. 1b) demonstrates clear separation of the three species using microsatellite data. In STRUCTURE analysis, greatest support was found for K = 2 clusters, resulting in the separation of Grevy’s zebra from the other two zebra species (Fig. 1a); at K = 3 (Fig. 1a), plains zebra and mountain zebra were subsequently differentiated unambiguously. The confidence in individual assignment was high, with the Grevy’s zebra assigned to cluster I with average proportion of membership QI = 99.6%, plains zebra assigned to cluster II with average proportion of membership QII = 99.4%, and mountains zebra assigned to cluster III with average proportion of membership QIII = 99.5%. Additionally, PCoA separated the three species clearly. Percentages of variation explained by the first 2 axes were 22.4% and 7.0%, respectively.

Bottom Line: We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra.Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations.Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, 2-24 Tanaka-Sekiden-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8203, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Zebras are members of the horse family. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra Equus quagga, the Grevy's zebra E. grevyi and the mountain zebra E. zebra. The Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered, and hybridization between the Grevy's zebra and the plains zebra has been documented, leading to a requirement for conservation genetic management within and between the species. We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra. A range of standard indices were employed to examine population genetic diversity and hybrid populations between Grevy's and plains zebra were simulated to investigate subspecies and hybrid detection. Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations. Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias. Species and subspecies differentiation were clearly demonstrated and F1 and F2 hybrids were correctly identified. These findings provide insights into captive population genetic diversity in zebras and support the use of these markers for identifying hybrids, including the known hybrid issue in the endangered Grevy's zebra.

No MeSH data available.