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Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile.

Lee BS, Chou PH, Chen SY, Liao HY, Chang CC - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite.In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste.It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University and National Taiwan University Hospital, No.1, Changde St., Jhongjheng District, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A,C) Ca 2p and (B,D) F 1s XPS spectra taken from the specimen surfaces following exposure to (A,B) the fluoride strip and (C,D) toothpaste for the specified periods of time and then pH cycling. Their related Ca 2p and F 1s spectra taken from HAP, the pristine enamel, Ca(OH)2, and CaF2 are included in respective plots for comparison.
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f2: (A,C) Ca 2p and (B,D) F 1s XPS spectra taken from the specimen surfaces following exposure to (A,B) the fluoride strip and (C,D) toothpaste for the specified periods of time and then pH cycling. Their related Ca 2p and F 1s spectra taken from HAP, the pristine enamel, Ca(OH)2, and CaF2 are included in respective plots for comparison.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the XPS spectra of enamel exposed to the fluoride strip or toothpaste for different periods of time. No peaks were observed in the F 1s spectrum of the enamel specimen before the exposure (Fig. 2(B,D)). However, when the enamel specimen and hydroxyapatite were placed side-by-side on the sample holder, the Ca 2p peak of the enamel specimen persistently had a binding energy slightly higher than that of hydroxyapatite (Fig. 2(A,C)). For the fluoride strip group, the F 1s signal was detected when the exposure time was above 2 hr (Fig. 2(B)). Its peak position shifted to higher binding energy as the exposure time was increased. In addition, the Ca 2p peak also gradually shifted to higher binding energy as the exposure time was increased to 8 hr (Fig. 2(A)), after which the peak position remained almost unvarying at 347.8 eV. For the toothpaste group, the F 1s signal was detected when the treatment time was above 4 h (Fig. 2(D)). As the treatment time was increased, the F 1s peak was positioned almost invariably, in contrast to the shift of the F 1s signal observed from the fluoride-gel-treated specimen. The F 1s signal intensity was smaller than the one detected at the same exposure time from the fluoride-gel-treated specimen (Fig. 2(B,D)). The rate of the F 1s signal increase with exposure time was also lower than that observed from the fluoride-gel-treated specimen. In addition, the Ca 2p peak gradually shifted to lower binding energy as the treatment time was increased to 8 hr (Fig. 2(C)), after which the peak position remained almost unvarying at 346.6 eV.


Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile.

Lee BS, Chou PH, Chen SY, Liao HY, Chang CC - Sci Rep (2015)

(A,C) Ca 2p and (B,D) F 1s XPS spectra taken from the specimen surfaces following exposure to (A,B) the fluoride strip and (C,D) toothpaste for the specified periods of time and then pH cycling. Their related Ca 2p and F 1s spectra taken from HAP, the pristine enamel, Ca(OH)2, and CaF2 are included in respective plots for comparison.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543969&req=5

f2: (A,C) Ca 2p and (B,D) F 1s XPS spectra taken from the specimen surfaces following exposure to (A,B) the fluoride strip and (C,D) toothpaste for the specified periods of time and then pH cycling. Their related Ca 2p and F 1s spectra taken from HAP, the pristine enamel, Ca(OH)2, and CaF2 are included in respective plots for comparison.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the XPS spectra of enamel exposed to the fluoride strip or toothpaste for different periods of time. No peaks were observed in the F 1s spectrum of the enamel specimen before the exposure (Fig. 2(B,D)). However, when the enamel specimen and hydroxyapatite were placed side-by-side on the sample holder, the Ca 2p peak of the enamel specimen persistently had a binding energy slightly higher than that of hydroxyapatite (Fig. 2(A,C)). For the fluoride strip group, the F 1s signal was detected when the exposure time was above 2 hr (Fig. 2(B)). Its peak position shifted to higher binding energy as the exposure time was increased. In addition, the Ca 2p peak also gradually shifted to higher binding energy as the exposure time was increased to 8 hr (Fig. 2(A)), after which the peak position remained almost unvarying at 347.8 eV. For the toothpaste group, the F 1s signal was detected when the treatment time was above 4 h (Fig. 2(D)). As the treatment time was increased, the F 1s peak was positioned almost invariably, in contrast to the shift of the F 1s signal observed from the fluoride-gel-treated specimen. The F 1s signal intensity was smaller than the one detected at the same exposure time from the fluoride-gel-treated specimen (Fig. 2(B,D)). The rate of the F 1s signal increase with exposure time was also lower than that observed from the fluoride-gel-treated specimen. In addition, the Ca 2p peak gradually shifted to lower binding energy as the treatment time was increased to 8 hr (Fig. 2(C)), after which the peak position remained almost unvarying at 346.6 eV.

Bottom Line: Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite.In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste.It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University and National Taiwan University Hospital, No.1, Changde St., Jhongjheng District, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus