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Optogenetic control of cell signaling pathway through scattering skull using wavefront shaping.

Yoon J, Lee M, Lee K, Kim N, Kim JM, Park J, Yu H, Choi C, Heo WD, Park Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We introduce a non-invasive approach for optogenetic regulation in biological cells through highly scattering skull tissue using wavefront shaping.The wavefront of the incident light was systematically controlled using a spatial light modulator in order to overcome multiple light-scattering in a mouse skull layer and to focus light on the target cells.We demonstrate that illumination with shaped waves enables spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) level at the individual-cell level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
We introduce a non-invasive approach for optogenetic regulation in biological cells through highly scattering skull tissue using wavefront shaping. The wavefront of the incident light was systematically controlled using a spatial light modulator in order to overcome multiple light-scattering in a mouse skull layer and to focus light on the target cells. We demonstrate that illumination with shaped waves enables spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) level at the individual-cell level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematics of current optical delivery methods for in vivo optogenetics and the proposed concept.(a) Focusing with a conventional lens results in light diffusion due to multiple light scattering in a skull and brain tissues. (b) Irradiation of target regions using an implanted optical fiber is invasive and causes tissue damage (green color). (c) Illumination with a shaped beam can enable light focusing inside tissues without invasive processes such as skull thinning or optical fiber implantation.
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f1: Schematics of current optical delivery methods for in vivo optogenetics and the proposed concept.(a) Focusing with a conventional lens results in light diffusion due to multiple light scattering in a skull and brain tissues. (b) Irradiation of target regions using an implanted optical fiber is invasive and causes tissue damage (green color). (c) Illumination with a shaped beam can enable light focusing inside tissues without invasive processes such as skull thinning or optical fiber implantation.

Mentions: Recently research has indicated significant potentials of optogenetics, light-controlled regulation of cell functions exploiting genetically modified light-sensitive proteins12. These have been demonstrated in various applications ranging from neuroscience3 and cardiology4, to genetics5. Recently, a significant breakthrough in optogenetics has been achieved by in vivo functional studies34. However, attempts toward in vivo optogenetics have been stymied by a fundamental limitation—light scattering. Multiple light scattering significantly limits light delivery through turbid media such as brain or skull layers (Fig. 1a). Consequently, existing in vivo optogenetic approaches rely on invasive methods including cranial windows involving skull removal or thinning6, and invasive implementation of an optical fiber7 (Fig. 1b). Although these methods extend the accessibility of optogenetics to deep tissue regions, unwanted cellular activities and tissue damage are inevitable. Recently developed red-shifted light-sensitive proteins, which absorb near-infrared (NIR) light8, showed deep light penetration through biological tissues, but penetration depth of NIR light is still limited to a few millimeters due to multiple light scattering.


Optogenetic control of cell signaling pathway through scattering skull using wavefront shaping.

Yoon J, Lee M, Lee K, Kim N, Kim JM, Park J, Yu H, Choi C, Heo WD, Park Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Schematics of current optical delivery methods for in vivo optogenetics and the proposed concept.(a) Focusing with a conventional lens results in light diffusion due to multiple light scattering in a skull and brain tissues. (b) Irradiation of target regions using an implanted optical fiber is invasive and causes tissue damage (green color). (c) Illumination with a shaped beam can enable light focusing inside tissues without invasive processes such as skull thinning or optical fiber implantation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543936&req=5

f1: Schematics of current optical delivery methods for in vivo optogenetics and the proposed concept.(a) Focusing with a conventional lens results in light diffusion due to multiple light scattering in a skull and brain tissues. (b) Irradiation of target regions using an implanted optical fiber is invasive and causes tissue damage (green color). (c) Illumination with a shaped beam can enable light focusing inside tissues without invasive processes such as skull thinning or optical fiber implantation.
Mentions: Recently research has indicated significant potentials of optogenetics, light-controlled regulation of cell functions exploiting genetically modified light-sensitive proteins12. These have been demonstrated in various applications ranging from neuroscience3 and cardiology4, to genetics5. Recently, a significant breakthrough in optogenetics has been achieved by in vivo functional studies34. However, attempts toward in vivo optogenetics have been stymied by a fundamental limitation—light scattering. Multiple light scattering significantly limits light delivery through turbid media such as brain or skull layers (Fig. 1a). Consequently, existing in vivo optogenetic approaches rely on invasive methods including cranial windows involving skull removal or thinning6, and invasive implementation of an optical fiber7 (Fig. 1b). Although these methods extend the accessibility of optogenetics to deep tissue regions, unwanted cellular activities and tissue damage are inevitable. Recently developed red-shifted light-sensitive proteins, which absorb near-infrared (NIR) light8, showed deep light penetration through biological tissues, but penetration depth of NIR light is still limited to a few millimeters due to multiple light scattering.

Bottom Line: We introduce a non-invasive approach for optogenetic regulation in biological cells through highly scattering skull tissue using wavefront shaping.The wavefront of the incident light was systematically controlled using a spatial light modulator in order to overcome multiple light-scattering in a mouse skull layer and to focus light on the target cells.We demonstrate that illumination with shaped waves enables spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) level at the individual-cell level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
We introduce a non-invasive approach for optogenetic regulation in biological cells through highly scattering skull tissue using wavefront shaping. The wavefront of the incident light was systematically controlled using a spatial light modulator in order to overcome multiple light-scattering in a mouse skull layer and to focus light on the target cells. We demonstrate that illumination with shaped waves enables spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) level at the individual-cell level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus