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Neurons in the barrel cortex turn into processing whisker and odor signals: a cellular mechanism for the storage and retrieval of associative signals.

Wang D, Zhao J, Gao Z, Chen N, Wen B, Lu W, Lei Z, Chen C, Liu Y, Feng J, Wang JH - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear.After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory).Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Associative learning and memory are essential to logical thinking and cognition. How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear. We studied this issue in the barrel cortex by in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology, and neural tracing in our mouse model that the simultaneous whisker and olfaction stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion. After this cross-modal reflex arose, the barrel and piriform cortices connected. More than 40% of barrel cortical neurons became to encode odor signal alongside whisker signal. Some of these neurons expressed distinct activity patterns in response to acquired odor signal and innate whisker signal, and others encoded similar pattern in response to these signals. In the meantime, certain barrel cortical astrocytes encoded odorant and whisker signals. After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory). Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The individual CR cells in the barrel cortex recognize odor and whisker input signals by coding their distinct activity patterns. (A–C) Present the data from neuron pairs and (D–F) show the data from astrocyte-pairs. (A) Shows temporal patterns from CR neurons in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom one) from an experiment, in which the responses of 27 neurons to WS and OS (red dash-line boxes) are presented in left panel. Calibration bars are 35% changes and 20 s. Each pixel in matrices denotes the peak value of correlation coefficient for a pair of cells. Dark-red pixels show the best cross-correlation (synchrony), or vice versa. (B) Illustrates correlation coefficients (CC) for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. A dash-line in 45° denotes equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS. The different activity synchronies are seen among most neuron pairs in response to WS and OS. (C) Shows statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the neurons in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p < 0.001, n = 27; paired t-test), and those for the neurons in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p < 0.001, n = 103; paired t-test). (D) Shows temporal patterns from CR astrocytes in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom) from an experiment, in which the responses of the astrocytes to WS and OS are showed in left panel. Calibration bars are 20% changes and 20 s. (E) Shows CC for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. Dash-line in 45° indicates equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS, indicating the different activity synchrony among most astrocyte pairs in response to WS and OS. (F) Illustrates statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p = 0.35, n = 7; paired t-test), and those for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p = 0.1, n = 17; paired t-test). ***p < 0.001.
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Figure 8: The individual CR cells in the barrel cortex recognize odor and whisker input signals by coding their distinct activity patterns. (A–C) Present the data from neuron pairs and (D–F) show the data from astrocyte-pairs. (A) Shows temporal patterns from CR neurons in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom one) from an experiment, in which the responses of 27 neurons to WS and OS (red dash-line boxes) are presented in left panel. Calibration bars are 35% changes and 20 s. Each pixel in matrices denotes the peak value of correlation coefficient for a pair of cells. Dark-red pixels show the best cross-correlation (synchrony), or vice versa. (B) Illustrates correlation coefficients (CC) for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. A dash-line in 45° denotes equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS. The different activity synchronies are seen among most neuron pairs in response to WS and OS. (C) Shows statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the neurons in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p < 0.001, n = 27; paired t-test), and those for the neurons in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p < 0.001, n = 103; paired t-test). (D) Shows temporal patterns from CR astrocytes in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom) from an experiment, in which the responses of the astrocytes to WS and OS are showed in left panel. Calibration bars are 20% changes and 20 s. (E) Shows CC for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. Dash-line in 45° indicates equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS, indicating the different activity synchrony among most astrocyte pairs in response to WS and OS. (F) Illustrates statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p = 0.35, n = 7; paired t-test), and those for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p = 0.1, n = 17; paired t-test). ***p < 0.001.

Mentions: Figure 8 illustrates the temporal patterns of CR neurons and astrocytes in response to WS and OS. Each pixel in the matrices presents peak cross-correlation for a pair of neurons (right panels in Figure 8A) or a pair of astrocytes (right panels in Figure 8D) in response to WS (top) and OS (bottom) from an experiment. Dark-red pixels denote the best cross-correlation, or vice versa. The plot in Figure 8B shows correlation coefficients (CC) for responding to OS vs. CC to WS, indicating that the most neuron pairs possess different activity synchronies in response to WS and OS. Correlation coefficients for CR neurons (n = 27) from a mouse are 0.5 ± 0.036 in response to WS and 0.36 ± 0.03 to OS (left panel in Figure 8C; p < 0.0001; paired t-test) from the experiment in Figures 8A,B. Correlation coefficients for CR neurons (n = 103) from five mice are 0.43 ± 0.026 in response to WS and 0.35 ± 0.037 to OS (right panel in Figure 8C; p < 0.0001; paired t-test). Figure 8F illustrates correlation coefficients for CR astrocytes in response to WS (0.41 ± 0.28) and to OS (0.28 ± 0.18, p = 0.1; paired t-test; right panel) from five mice. The results support a hypothesis that CR neurons recognize the whisker and odor signals by synchronizing their activities.


Neurons in the barrel cortex turn into processing whisker and odor signals: a cellular mechanism for the storage and retrieval of associative signals.

Wang D, Zhao J, Gao Z, Chen N, Wen B, Lu W, Lei Z, Chen C, Liu Y, Feng J, Wang JH - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

The individual CR cells in the barrel cortex recognize odor and whisker input signals by coding their distinct activity patterns. (A–C) Present the data from neuron pairs and (D–F) show the data from astrocyte-pairs. (A) Shows temporal patterns from CR neurons in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom one) from an experiment, in which the responses of 27 neurons to WS and OS (red dash-line boxes) are presented in left panel. Calibration bars are 35% changes and 20 s. Each pixel in matrices denotes the peak value of correlation coefficient for a pair of cells. Dark-red pixels show the best cross-correlation (synchrony), or vice versa. (B) Illustrates correlation coefficients (CC) for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. A dash-line in 45° denotes equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS. The different activity synchronies are seen among most neuron pairs in response to WS and OS. (C) Shows statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the neurons in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p < 0.001, n = 27; paired t-test), and those for the neurons in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p < 0.001, n = 103; paired t-test). (D) Shows temporal patterns from CR astrocytes in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom) from an experiment, in which the responses of the astrocytes to WS and OS are showed in left panel. Calibration bars are 20% changes and 20 s. (E) Shows CC for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. Dash-line in 45° indicates equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS, indicating the different activity synchrony among most astrocyte pairs in response to WS and OS. (F) Illustrates statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p = 0.35, n = 7; paired t-test), and those for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p = 0.1, n = 17; paired t-test). ***p < 0.001.
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Figure 8: The individual CR cells in the barrel cortex recognize odor and whisker input signals by coding their distinct activity patterns. (A–C) Present the data from neuron pairs and (D–F) show the data from astrocyte-pairs. (A) Shows temporal patterns from CR neurons in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom one) from an experiment, in which the responses of 27 neurons to WS and OS (red dash-line boxes) are presented in left panel. Calibration bars are 35% changes and 20 s. Each pixel in matrices denotes the peak value of correlation coefficient for a pair of cells. Dark-red pixels show the best cross-correlation (synchrony), or vice versa. (B) Illustrates correlation coefficients (CC) for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. A dash-line in 45° denotes equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS. The different activity synchronies are seen among most neuron pairs in response to WS and OS. (C) Shows statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the neurons in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p < 0.001, n = 27; paired t-test), and those for the neurons in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p < 0.001, n = 103; paired t-test). (D) Shows temporal patterns from CR astrocytes in response to WS (right-top panel) and OS (right-bottom) from an experiment, in which the responses of the astrocytes to WS and OS are showed in left panel. Calibration bars are 20% changes and 20 s. (E) Shows CC for OS vs. CC for WS in this example. Dash-line in 45° indicates equal values in CC for OS vs. CC for WS, indicating the different activity synchrony among most astrocyte pairs in response to WS and OS. (F) Illustrates statistical comparisons in CC peak values for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from this experiment (left panel; p = 0.35, n = 7; paired t-test), and those for the astrocytes in response to WS and OS from five experiments (right; p = 0.1, n = 17; paired t-test). ***p < 0.001.
Mentions: Figure 8 illustrates the temporal patterns of CR neurons and astrocytes in response to WS and OS. Each pixel in the matrices presents peak cross-correlation for a pair of neurons (right panels in Figure 8A) or a pair of astrocytes (right panels in Figure 8D) in response to WS (top) and OS (bottom) from an experiment. Dark-red pixels denote the best cross-correlation, or vice versa. The plot in Figure 8B shows correlation coefficients (CC) for responding to OS vs. CC to WS, indicating that the most neuron pairs possess different activity synchronies in response to WS and OS. Correlation coefficients for CR neurons (n = 27) from a mouse are 0.5 ± 0.036 in response to WS and 0.36 ± 0.03 to OS (left panel in Figure 8C; p < 0.0001; paired t-test) from the experiment in Figures 8A,B. Correlation coefficients for CR neurons (n = 103) from five mice are 0.43 ± 0.026 in response to WS and 0.35 ± 0.037 to OS (right panel in Figure 8C; p < 0.0001; paired t-test). Figure 8F illustrates correlation coefficients for CR astrocytes in response to WS (0.41 ± 0.28) and to OS (0.28 ± 0.18, p = 0.1; paired t-test; right panel) from five mice. The results support a hypothesis that CR neurons recognize the whisker and odor signals by synchronizing their activities.

Bottom Line: How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear.After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory).Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Associative learning and memory are essential to logical thinking and cognition. How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear. We studied this issue in the barrel cortex by in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology, and neural tracing in our mouse model that the simultaneous whisker and olfaction stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion. After this cross-modal reflex arose, the barrel and piriform cortices connected. More than 40% of barrel cortical neurons became to encode odor signal alongside whisker signal. Some of these neurons expressed distinct activity patterns in response to acquired odor signal and innate whisker signal, and others encoded similar pattern in response to these signals. In the meantime, certain barrel cortical astrocytes encoded odorant and whisker signals. After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory). Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus