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Neurons in the barrel cortex turn into processing whisker and odor signals: a cellular mechanism for the storage and retrieval of associative signals.

Wang D, Zhao J, Gao Z, Chen N, Wen B, Lu W, Lei Z, Chen C, Liu Y, Feng J, Wang JH - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear.After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory).Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Associative learning and memory are essential to logical thinking and cognition. How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear. We studied this issue in the barrel cortex by in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology, and neural tracing in our mouse model that the simultaneous whisker and olfaction stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion. After this cross-modal reflex arose, the barrel and piriform cortices connected. More than 40% of barrel cortical neurons became to encode odor signal alongside whisker signal. Some of these neurons expressed distinct activity patterns in response to acquired odor signal and innate whisker signal, and others encoded similar pattern in response to these signals. In the meantime, certain barrel cortical astrocytes encoded odorant and whisker signals. After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory). Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The barrel cortex recognizes whisker and olfaction inputs via organizing different neurons in their responses. (A) Shows Ca2+ imaging in neurons (greens in left panel) and astrocytes (red). The neurons (middle) and astrocytes (right) in response to both OS and WS are labeled as yellow, OS only as blue, or WS only as green. (B) Shows the percentages of WS-responsive neurons (green bar), OS/WS-responsive neurons (yellow), and OS-responsive neurons (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). (C) Illustrates the percentages of WS-responsive astrocytes (green bar), OS/WS-responsive astrocytes (yellow), and OS-responsive astrocytes (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). WS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize whisker signal. OS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize odor signal.
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Figure 7: The barrel cortex recognizes whisker and olfaction inputs via organizing different neurons in their responses. (A) Shows Ca2+ imaging in neurons (greens in left panel) and astrocytes (red). The neurons (middle) and astrocytes (right) in response to both OS and WS are labeled as yellow, OS only as blue, or WS only as green. (B) Shows the percentages of WS-responsive neurons (green bar), OS/WS-responsive neurons (yellow), and OS-responsive neurons (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). (C) Illustrates the percentages of WS-responsive astrocytes (green bar), OS/WS-responsive astrocytes (yellow), and OS-responsive astrocytes (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). WS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize whisker signal. OS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize odor signal.

Mentions: In terms of the role of barrel cortical neurons and astrocytes in recognizing the associated signals, two-photon cell Ca2+ imaging shows OS-/WS-responsive cells (yellow-labeled cells in the middle panel of Figure 7A), OS-responsive cells (blue) and WS-responsive cells (green). In total neurons of responding to stimulations (Figure 5J), the portions of WS-responsive neurons, OS-responsive neurons, and OS-/WS-responsive neurons are 23.7 ± 7.5, 21.9 ± 9.6, and 54.4 ± 12.8%, respectively (n = 5 mice, Figure 7B). The portions of WS-responsive, OS-responsive, and OS-/WS-responsive astrocytes are 21 ± 18.2, 13.4 ± 8.2, and 65.6 ± 14.3%, respectively (Figure 7C). These results indicate that WS-responsive cells and OS-/WS-responsive cells work together to encode the whisker signal, but OS-responsive and OS-/WS-responsive cells work together to encode the odor signal. The responsive neurons or astrocytes in the barrel cortices are organized into two populations to distinguish the input signals from either whiskers or olfaction.


Neurons in the barrel cortex turn into processing whisker and odor signals: a cellular mechanism for the storage and retrieval of associative signals.

Wang D, Zhao J, Gao Z, Chen N, Wen B, Lu W, Lei Z, Chen C, Liu Y, Feng J, Wang JH - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

The barrel cortex recognizes whisker and olfaction inputs via organizing different neurons in their responses. (A) Shows Ca2+ imaging in neurons (greens in left panel) and astrocytes (red). The neurons (middle) and astrocytes (right) in response to both OS and WS are labeled as yellow, OS only as blue, or WS only as green. (B) Shows the percentages of WS-responsive neurons (green bar), OS/WS-responsive neurons (yellow), and OS-responsive neurons (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). (C) Illustrates the percentages of WS-responsive astrocytes (green bar), OS/WS-responsive astrocytes (yellow), and OS-responsive astrocytes (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). WS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize whisker signal. OS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize odor signal.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543922&req=5

Figure 7: The barrel cortex recognizes whisker and olfaction inputs via organizing different neurons in their responses. (A) Shows Ca2+ imaging in neurons (greens in left panel) and astrocytes (red). The neurons (middle) and astrocytes (right) in response to both OS and WS are labeled as yellow, OS only as blue, or WS only as green. (B) Shows the percentages of WS-responsive neurons (green bar), OS/WS-responsive neurons (yellow), and OS-responsive neurons (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). (C) Illustrates the percentages of WS-responsive astrocytes (green bar), OS/WS-responsive astrocytes (yellow), and OS-responsive astrocytes (blue) from CR-formation mice (n = 5). WS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize whisker signal. OS-responsive and OS/WS-responsive cells work together to recognize odor signal.
Mentions: In terms of the role of barrel cortical neurons and astrocytes in recognizing the associated signals, two-photon cell Ca2+ imaging shows OS-/WS-responsive cells (yellow-labeled cells in the middle panel of Figure 7A), OS-responsive cells (blue) and WS-responsive cells (green). In total neurons of responding to stimulations (Figure 5J), the portions of WS-responsive neurons, OS-responsive neurons, and OS-/WS-responsive neurons are 23.7 ± 7.5, 21.9 ± 9.6, and 54.4 ± 12.8%, respectively (n = 5 mice, Figure 7B). The portions of WS-responsive, OS-responsive, and OS-/WS-responsive astrocytes are 21 ± 18.2, 13.4 ± 8.2, and 65.6 ± 14.3%, respectively (Figure 7C). These results indicate that WS-responsive cells and OS-/WS-responsive cells work together to encode the whisker signal, but OS-responsive and OS-/WS-responsive cells work together to encode the odor signal. The responsive neurons or astrocytes in the barrel cortices are organized into two populations to distinguish the input signals from either whiskers or olfaction.

Bottom Line: How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear.After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory).Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Associative learning and memory are essential to logical thinking and cognition. How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear. We studied this issue in the barrel cortex by in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology, and neural tracing in our mouse model that the simultaneous whisker and olfaction stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion. After this cross-modal reflex arose, the barrel and piriform cortices connected. More than 40% of barrel cortical neurons became to encode odor signal alongside whisker signal. Some of these neurons expressed distinct activity patterns in response to acquired odor signal and innate whisker signal, and others encoded similar pattern in response to these signals. In the meantime, certain barrel cortical astrocytes encoded odorant and whisker signals. After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory). Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus