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Neurons in the barrel cortex turn into processing whisker and odor signals: a cellular mechanism for the storage and retrieval of associative signals.

Wang D, Zhao J, Gao Z, Chen N, Wen B, Lu W, Lei Z, Chen C, Liu Y, Feng J, Wang JH - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear.After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory).Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Associative learning and memory are essential to logical thinking and cognition. How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear. We studied this issue in the barrel cortex by in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology, and neural tracing in our mouse model that the simultaneous whisker and olfaction stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion. After this cross-modal reflex arose, the barrel and piriform cortices connected. More than 40% of barrel cortical neurons became to encode odor signal alongside whisker signal. Some of these neurons expressed distinct activity patterns in response to acquired odor signal and innate whisker signal, and others encoded similar pattern in response to these signals. In the meantime, certain barrel cortical astrocytes encoded odorant and whisker signals. After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory). Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The activity patterns of barrel cortical neurons in response to OS and WS from CR-formation mice and controls. Neuronal activities were recorded by LFP in vivo. (A) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a NCG mouse do not respond to OS (left horizontal bar), but respond to WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces illustarte the expanded waveforms from the fragments of no response to OS (left) and of response to WS (right). Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (B) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a CR-formation mouse respond to OS (left horizontal bar) and WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces show the expanded waveforms from the fragments of responses to OS (left) and WS (right). LFP amplitude and frequency appear different. Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (C,D) Show LFP amplitudes (C) and frequencies (D) in response to OS, which are recorded in the barrel cortex from NCG mice (white bar; n = 9) and CR-formation mice (gray; p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (E) Shows LFP amplitudes recorded from the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (F) Illustrates the power-spectrum of LFP frequency in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS (dash line) and OS (solid line). (G) Shows LFP frequency recorded in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). ***p < 0.001.
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Figure 6: The activity patterns of barrel cortical neurons in response to OS and WS from CR-formation mice and controls. Neuronal activities were recorded by LFP in vivo. (A) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a NCG mouse do not respond to OS (left horizontal bar), but respond to WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces illustarte the expanded waveforms from the fragments of no response to OS (left) and of response to WS (right). Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (B) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a CR-formation mouse respond to OS (left horizontal bar) and WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces show the expanded waveforms from the fragments of responses to OS (left) and WS (right). LFP amplitude and frequency appear different. Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (C,D) Show LFP amplitudes (C) and frequencies (D) in response to OS, which are recorded in the barrel cortex from NCG mice (white bar; n = 9) and CR-formation mice (gray; p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (E) Shows LFP amplitudes recorded from the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (F) Illustrates the power-spectrum of LFP frequency in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS (dash line) and OS (solid line). (G) Shows LFP frequency recorded in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). ***p < 0.001.

Mentions: We also examined the recruitment of barrel cortical neurons to encode odor and whisker signals by recording LFP in barrel cortices. The neurons in a CR-formation mouse respond to both WS and OS (Figure 6B), compared with the neurons in a control mouse that do not respond to OS (Figure 6A). Figures 6C,D illustrates the averaged LFP amplitude and frequency in response to OS from CR-formation mice (gray bars, n = 9) and control mice (whites; p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). The barrel cortical neurons in CR-formation mice are recruited to encode the acquired odor signal alongside innate whisker signal.


Neurons in the barrel cortex turn into processing whisker and odor signals: a cellular mechanism for the storage and retrieval of associative signals.

Wang D, Zhao J, Gao Z, Chen N, Wen B, Lu W, Lei Z, Chen C, Liu Y, Feng J, Wang JH - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

The activity patterns of barrel cortical neurons in response to OS and WS from CR-formation mice and controls. Neuronal activities were recorded by LFP in vivo. (A) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a NCG mouse do not respond to OS (left horizontal bar), but respond to WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces illustarte the expanded waveforms from the fragments of no response to OS (left) and of response to WS (right). Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (B) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a CR-formation mouse respond to OS (left horizontal bar) and WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces show the expanded waveforms from the fragments of responses to OS (left) and WS (right). LFP amplitude and frequency appear different. Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (C,D) Show LFP amplitudes (C) and frequencies (D) in response to OS, which are recorded in the barrel cortex from NCG mice (white bar; n = 9) and CR-formation mice (gray; p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (E) Shows LFP amplitudes recorded from the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (F) Illustrates the power-spectrum of LFP frequency in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS (dash line) and OS (solid line). (G) Shows LFP frequency recorded in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). ***p < 0.001.
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Figure 6: The activity patterns of barrel cortical neurons in response to OS and WS from CR-formation mice and controls. Neuronal activities were recorded by LFP in vivo. (A) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a NCG mouse do not respond to OS (left horizontal bar), but respond to WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces illustarte the expanded waveforms from the fragments of no response to OS (left) and of response to WS (right). Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (B) Top trace shows that the neurons in the barrel cortex from a CR-formation mouse respond to OS (left horizontal bar) and WS (right). Calibration bars for this trace are 0.4 mV and 10 s. Bottom traces show the expanded waveforms from the fragments of responses to OS (left) and WS (right). LFP amplitude and frequency appear different. Calibration bars for these traces are 0.3 mV and 4 s. (C,D) Show LFP amplitudes (C) and frequencies (D) in response to OS, which are recorded in the barrel cortex from NCG mice (white bar; n = 9) and CR-formation mice (gray; p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (E) Shows LFP amplitudes recorded from the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). (F) Illustrates the power-spectrum of LFP frequency in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS (dash line) and OS (solid line). (G) Shows LFP frequency recorded in the barrel cortex of CR-formation mice in response to WS and OS (p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). ***p < 0.001.
Mentions: We also examined the recruitment of barrel cortical neurons to encode odor and whisker signals by recording LFP in barrel cortices. The neurons in a CR-formation mouse respond to both WS and OS (Figure 6B), compared with the neurons in a control mouse that do not respond to OS (Figure 6A). Figures 6C,D illustrates the averaged LFP amplitude and frequency in response to OS from CR-formation mice (gray bars, n = 9) and control mice (whites; p < 0.001, n = 9; One-Way ANOVA). The barrel cortical neurons in CR-formation mice are recruited to encode the acquired odor signal alongside innate whisker signal.

Bottom Line: How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear.After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory).Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Associative learning and memory are essential to logical thinking and cognition. How the neurons are recruited as associative memory cells to encode multiple input signals for their associated storage and distinguishable retrieval remains unclear. We studied this issue in the barrel cortex by in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology, and neural tracing in our mouse model that the simultaneous whisker and olfaction stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion. After this cross-modal reflex arose, the barrel and piriform cortices connected. More than 40% of barrel cortical neurons became to encode odor signal alongside whisker signal. Some of these neurons expressed distinct activity patterns in response to acquired odor signal and innate whisker signal, and others encoded similar pattern in response to these signals. In the meantime, certain barrel cortical astrocytes encoded odorant and whisker signals. After associative learning, the neurons and astrocytes in the sensory cortices are able to store the newly learnt signal (cross-modal memory) besides the innate signal (native-modal memory). Such associative memory cells distinguish the differences of these signals by programming different codes and signify the historical associations of these signals by similar codes in information retrievals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus