Limits...
The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A comparison of stimuli involving happy and angry expressions in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Error bars indicate ± SE. The dotted line indicates the PSE of static neutral expression as the reference. **p < 0.01 in a t-test comparing the PSEs between this reference and the condition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543824&req=5

Figure 5: A comparison of stimuli involving happy and angry expressions in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Error bars indicate ± SE. The dotted line indicates the PSE of static neutral expression as the reference. **p < 0.01 in a t-test comparing the PSEs between this reference and the condition.

Mentions: To further examine how dynamic changes between emotional facial expressions affect the perception of time, we regrouped the morphing pairs according to specific hypotheses concerning the induced approach-avoidance motivation, and valence and arousal changes. We first compared happy>angry morph with the neutral>happy and neutral>angry morphs in Experiment 1 (Figure 5). Dynamic expressions were found to have significantly stronger time-drag effects when compared to static expressions. In Experiment 1, the overestimation effect of the neutral>angry morph is significantly larger than the neutral>happy morph [t(86) = 2.70, p < 0.01, d = 0.58]. Morphing between the happy>angry pair also induces a significant time drag, while the effect lies in between the two conditions. Both emotions appeared to exert an effect on the perception of time. This seems to indicate that a morph involving two distinct emotions has a time-drag effect that equals the average of the two neutral>emotional morphs. However, this interpretation remains a speculation and requires further testing because the happy>angry morphs are statistically not different from the neutral>happy or neutral>angry morph.


The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

A comparison of stimuli involving happy and angry expressions in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Error bars indicate ± SE. The dotted line indicates the PSE of static neutral expression as the reference. **p < 0.01 in a t-test comparing the PSEs between this reference and the condition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543824&req=5

Figure 5: A comparison of stimuli involving happy and angry expressions in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Error bars indicate ± SE. The dotted line indicates the PSE of static neutral expression as the reference. **p < 0.01 in a t-test comparing the PSEs between this reference and the condition.
Mentions: To further examine how dynamic changes between emotional facial expressions affect the perception of time, we regrouped the morphing pairs according to specific hypotheses concerning the induced approach-avoidance motivation, and valence and arousal changes. We first compared happy>angry morph with the neutral>happy and neutral>angry morphs in Experiment 1 (Figure 5). Dynamic expressions were found to have significantly stronger time-drag effects when compared to static expressions. In Experiment 1, the overestimation effect of the neutral>angry morph is significantly larger than the neutral>happy morph [t(86) = 2.70, p < 0.01, d = 0.58]. Morphing between the happy>angry pair also induces a significant time drag, while the effect lies in between the two conditions. Both emotions appeared to exert an effect on the perception of time. This seems to indicate that a morph involving two distinct emotions has a time-drag effect that equals the average of the two neutral>emotional morphs. However, this interpretation remains a speculation and requires further testing because the happy>angry morphs are statistically not different from the neutral>happy or neutral>angry morph.

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus