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The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average valence and arousal ratings of the two models' photographs used in this condition on a seven-point scale rating task. Data were obtained from a pilot study to rate the stimuli (n = 20).
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Figure 4: Average valence and arousal ratings of the two models' photographs used in this condition on a seven-point scale rating task. Data were obtained from a pilot study to rate the stimuli (n = 20).

Mentions: The Chi-square statistics were similar to those in Experiment 1. Male and female participants assigned to the key press [χ2(1, n = 39) = 0.24, p = 0.62] and gender of model conditions [χ2(1, n = 39) = 0.01, p = 0.91] were unbiased. An additional Chi-square test was conducted to ensure that the proportions of participants' gender did not differ between Experiments 1 and 2 [χ2(1, n = 83) = 0.01, p = 0.90]. Thus, the results of Experiment 1 provide a reasonable reference which is not influenced by gender difference. The key press and gender of model assignments were collated, and the proportions of “long” responses across time were fitted with cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the PSE in each condition. Figure 4 summarizes the PSE of the conditions in Experiment 2 and their SEM. The first notable finding is a general time-drag effect in all conditions (Figure 4 and Table 3). In addition, all except the fear > angry and disgusted-angry pairs had significantly shorter PSE than the static neutral expression in Experiment 1 (Figure 4). This conforms to the findings in previous studies and our results in Experiment 1.


The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

Average valence and arousal ratings of the two models' photographs used in this condition on a seven-point scale rating task. Data were obtained from a pilot study to rate the stimuli (n = 20).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543824&req=5

Figure 4: Average valence and arousal ratings of the two models' photographs used in this condition on a seven-point scale rating task. Data were obtained from a pilot study to rate the stimuli (n = 20).
Mentions: The Chi-square statistics were similar to those in Experiment 1. Male and female participants assigned to the key press [χ2(1, n = 39) = 0.24, p = 0.62] and gender of model conditions [χ2(1, n = 39) = 0.01, p = 0.91] were unbiased. An additional Chi-square test was conducted to ensure that the proportions of participants' gender did not differ between Experiments 1 and 2 [χ2(1, n = 83) = 0.01, p = 0.90]. Thus, the results of Experiment 1 provide a reasonable reference which is not influenced by gender difference. The key press and gender of model assignments were collated, and the proportions of “long” responses across time were fitted with cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the PSE in each condition. Figure 4 summarizes the PSE of the conditions in Experiment 2 and their SEM. The first notable finding is a general time-drag effect in all conditions (Figure 4 and Table 3). In addition, all except the fear > angry and disgusted-angry pairs had significantly shorter PSE than the static neutral expression in Experiment 1 (Figure 4). This conforms to the findings in previous studies and our results in Experiment 1.

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus